A close look at viticulture in Burgundy with Richard Bampfield MW and Christophe Chauvel

So welcome everybody it’s my pleasure to Welcome you all to tonight’s webinar a Close look at viticulture In burgundy my name is lydia harrison I’m a master of wine and educator at the Wset school In london and i organized their Programme of events Of which this is this evenings and I’m very um very very happy to Introduce to you this evening richard Banfield a fellow master of wine Who will be hosting this session and Asking A lot of your questions to christoph Chobal who is the Head of viticulture at albert b show in Burgundy So i shall pass over to them now without Further ado And richard can introduce himself in a Little bit more detail and take you Through How this evening is going to roll thank You richard Thank you very much lydia good evening Everybody and so pleased you could join Us In normal times um albert b show loves To Receive visitors and every year we Receive students from All over the world to come to burgundy And have a

Have a tour around the vineyards have a Tour around the cellars and really Understand what burgundy is about Obviously that’s harder at the moment And it’s the real shame one of the Highlights of every trip Is the time spent in the vineyard with Christoph chevelle Who’s in charge of viticulture at albert Bishop And although very often it’s in february Or march When burgundy can be bitterly cold And uh it’s it’s quite it’s it takes um Real commitment to the cause of Education and learning To to be out there in the cold learning About the the basics of terroir and Burgundy But that’s what we’re there for and it Is it’s a shame we can’t do that now So we thought it would be an idea to Bring this to the The virtual inver the virtual context Uh so i’m joined i’m very happy to join This evening by christopher chevelle Who you can see there sorry he wasn’t There when you signed in he was um Just doing what is an essential part of Any presentation Making sure he had a glass of wine Available and maybe he’ll tell us a bit More about what he’s got a little bit Later

The way this is it’s an introduction to To burgundy it’s geography it’s geology And it’s terroir and what we’re going to Do is Start off with something that is maybe Slightly unconventional and I hope christoph isn’t too uh put out by This I’m actually going to show a video to Begin with which is a video that Christoph Himself prepared and sent me after Christmas And i thought this is brilliant this is Lovely this is exactly what So many uh wine lovers and people Interested in learning about burgundy Would love to see But i realize not everybody speaks French and what i thought i’d do is We’re going to show the video it does Have subtitles But i’m i’ve muted kristoff’s commentary And i will commentate on bits of it As we go through it and i may Occasionally pause it The video lasts about 12 minutes with The stops It’s probably going to take maybe nearer To 15 minutes So it will set the scene for what we Want to talk about in this session And what the the the subjects that we Approach are really up to you the

Audience Uh we will be looking to the the q a and The chat To inform what you want to hear about With burgundy And what you would like kristoff to Explain christoph is Highly exp experienced he’s got it he’s Got Experience in biodynamics in organic Viticulture As well which is what albe bishop Practiced now And at their domains and he well and He also i suppose what i like about his Role Is that although he’s a viticulturalist He’s also Really involved in the decisions in the Cellar too It’s a it’s an aspect of the way bishop Managed their estates That the winemaking team and christoph And his team in the vineyard work very Closely together So there’s not a real divide between the Two They are deciding together the decisions Both about Important aspects like picking dates but Also What’s going to happen to the wines when They reach the the cellars as well How they’re going to manage the the

Fermentation temperatures Pizzage whole bunch all this sort of Thing These are decisions that the Viticultural team Take a part in as well really Interesting approach anyway More of that a little bit later um Christoph lovely to see you Thank you very much for joining us and As i say In the first part of this you’re going To hear more from me But don’t despair in the the second Three quarters of this you will hear far More from kristoff Okay so i’m going to start i’m hoping You can all see the screen I’m going to start this video and as i Say i’m going to Commentate um a little bit as we as we Go Through so this is We we all to my mind burgundy if there’s One place in the world Which one would go to to try to Understand terroir The notion of terroir it is burgundy And when christoph sent this video to me I thought this is perfect because what He’s done is he’s taken It’s not as if he’s comparing nuisance George and chamberlain Here he’s just taken one plot

In nuisance george one plot and in it They dug whole so they can analyze the Soil and you’ll see that in this video He talks about the influence of the Soils But also the in the subtle influences of The climate And the fact that these things they are So complex And we know that burgundy is already Divided into these many different crew Uh and uh sites so you know so in all The major appalachians You’ve got the various premier crew and Grand cru but Even within those premier crew and grand Cru There are divisions there are Separations And this is a this is a really good Example i think of Of helping to understand that so this is Uh in here a few lovely shots of Burgundy i think to Set the scene And you can see the different maps that Are available of burgundy Uh the the maps that also show the i Can’t remember the word for the maps That Show the topographic maybe which show They uh Show the height the contours of the Vineyards as well

It’s about the geology it’s about the Clear the climate It’s about the different soil types um And of course The vine itself and we’ll talk more About that As as we go through this this Presentation That looks like bone claude moosh to me I don’t know if it was kristoff but that Looked like bone claudia much just there And these uh and all of this in Burgundies unites um Protected by the by unesco i’m just Going to pause here very very quickly Uh this is this is a vineyard that I i’m embarrassed to say that until About five years ago I had never visited crew beaujolais And i’d never been to flurry i’d never Been to mogo I’d never been to mulan until alba Bishop bought a domain called rosh gray In mulan and that’s what this is this is Now we all know what we all know what Beaujolais tastes of It’s fruity it’s soft it’s round Did you believe it was made from vines That looked like this This is it’s like a it’s like an almost A lunar landscape to me This really barren land with granite Very very close to the surface both pink And gray granite

And here you’ve got vines which in in Most cases are over 80 years old This is the real beaujolais and this is Why i think beaujolais has for so many Of us become so much more exciting in The last In the last few years because i think of The respect That the burgundy has for the the old Vines And you will have seen i’m sure that Albert be sure Not alone other uh domains from The cote d’or have also bought estates In Crew beaujolais in recent years and There’s No doubt in my mind that from vines like These We’re going to see outstanding wines in The years to come As the the cote d’or producers really Understand What’s possible from from gamma from Vines like this But it is and this is this is but you go To fleury which is next door And you see vineyards which are equally Dramatic it’s it’s an astonishing Landscape And if you haven’t been to crew Beaujolais i’d really recommend Going there it is chalk and cheese from The sort of flatter fertile vineyards

Further south in the appalachian that Make boasts that make most of beaujolais It’s a wonderful area So and this is one area you can see We’ll be talking about Uh uh cover crops uh Which are the the worm casts and the Importance of worms In the the uh just the the Soil the the life of a of a good Vineyard soil So this is really where we come down to The nuts and bolts of what this Uh this short video is about one Vineyard In nuisance george which happens to be The vineyard behind me you can see On my screensaver chateau gri In nuisance george and it’s built on Terraces And this is right at the top you can see The chateau there And the vineyard we’re looking at is Right at the top of the hill This by burgundy standards it is a Vineyard with altitude It’s right at the top of the appalachian You can see it’s quite a spectacular Vineyard a lot of old vines And we’re going up to the top here where Because it’s a A plot which isn’t evenly shaped it’s Got Contours it’s got slopes it’s not got an

Even shape The vines aren’t trellised they’re not Trained on wires Here you’ve got the vines grown in a Goblet system They are at least in rose not on fool But they are there’s kristoff looking Extremely burgundian and and having a Look around Around the vineyard this is obviously Winter time Because there’s not much growth here and You can see this is Unlike most vineyards you would see in Burgundy and And in france generally because it’s the Goblet system But it’s they sometimes have to do that Where a site Is unsuited to to trellising And obviously it’s a special skill Knowing how to manage Vines in this in this traditional Method the goblin method As christoph is saying this is the Concave shape a comb Is a is a valley and this is the the Calm the valleys Are central to understanding terroir in The coat door Because they influence the breezes that Blow through the vineyards And if you’ve got a comb you are always Going to get freshness

That will slow down the ripening of the Grapes and that obviously Is a terroir influence and some sites Have more combed influence Than others here they mow they don’t Plow Obviously it would be quite difficult to Get tractors or even horses maybe Between these vines And you can see how relatively close Together They’ve dug three holes to Demonstrate the differences in soils I always smile a little bit when i’m Talking about holes in the ground Because i went on a visit to To chile and argentina a couple of years Ago And or argentina particularly and we Were shown holes in the ground Everywhere what they call calicuttas Over there And they i think they were losing they Were trying to lose some of us i reckon Because everywhere we went we saw holes In the ground but they are Critical to understanding what’s beneath The surface Christoph just then talked of orizon and The orizon the horizons By that he means the different strata of Soils That they find in the soils obviously It’s not just what’s on top

That it is important it’s what’s Underneath as well The subsoils too And here you can see that the different The different holes they dug They can see the depth of the vines they Can see the color of the soil You can tell a lot from the color here It’s a a grayer soil And some have more or less rocks than Others And that will influence the water Retention capacity of the soils And how deep the roots need to go If the if the soils retain a lot of Return moisture They may not need to go so deep if they Retain very little The roots may have to go deeper And also they’re looking at the the Types of rocks here The limestone what type of limestone it May be And here again a second hole and you can See that the soil color is different Okay now i don’t know enough about this To know exactly what that means About the constitution of the soil but It will have an impact On fertility and drainage And those are obviously two key aspects That influence the growing of the vine And then in a third profile here you can See the different colors of the

Different colors The different strata the orizon that Kristoff was talking about earlier And above all they’re looking for here They’re adding hydrochloric acid To different soils and this will Indicate The amount of calcium that is available In each soil and that that influences That influences a lot it might influence What grape variety they grow It might influence what root stock they Choose it might influence what Clone they choose so calcium is really Important And so understanding the the measure of The the percentage of calcium in the Soil is Important here you go he’s mentioning About rootstock as well A really vital element in the in the Equation And here you go that sort of uh they’re Looking for As many organisms as possible in the Soil worms are really important We may talk later about the relative Merits of plowing And cover crops because that’s a very Topical subject at the moment And one of the one of the keys here is You saw on the previous slide there was A plot Uh i’m just going to pause there very

Quickly there was a Uh there was a um Sorry my fault I shouldn’t have done that um i’m just Going to pause there for a moment You saw on the previous slide this one That there’s An unplanted vineyard there it’s really Critical the work they do when the Vineyard is lying fallow So between uprooting the vines and Planting them again Replanting there’s really important work That needs to be done To what extent they turn the soil over How much they Uh aerate it how deep they go What cover crops they grow which will Influence The nutrients and nitrogen available to The vines in future And they’ll plant different different Cover crops it’s quite sophisticated These days In terms of the different plants they Will grow Some of these will also help encourage Certain Wildlife in the vineyard which could Predate on some of the wildlife they’re Trying to avoid There you go they’ve got one of the Machines this is an example of How deep they might aerate the soil but

As christoph is saying here these days They prefer to do Not too deep because it’s going to Influence the terroir I know we like to think of viticulture As a lovely rural Agricultural practice but science is Very helpful In informing the decisions So there’s so much they can learn by Digging into the soil’s compactness here As well Lime consort is another key domain in The the beach choke portfolio And even within mel console you’ve got These areas that are different some that Are sandier Some that have got a higher proportion Of clay and that will depend largely On how high up the slope they are So it’s really important to know this is Where This is where local knowledge is Critical and Really understanding your vineyard So and this will influence ultimately The hierarchy in Burgundy as well the uh the the Different crew And all these influences as well this is Why the viticulture team Get involved with wire making as well That’s a great shot isn’t it wow We’ll probably talk about frost a little

Bit later Scary And there you have the classic um whoops Oh i’m not gonna that that that Uh chart there uh the top left That’s the classic picture of burgundy Terroir or cote d’or terroir that one And the one below Where you can see the the slopes of the Vineyards And the heart of the slope the middle of The slope is where you’re likely to find Most of the grand cru And premiere crew because the middle of The slope has the best Exposure to the sun the best level in Terms of Soil being fertile but not too deep And not too much altitude because Obviously the higher you go The cooler it gets and the less likely It is that the grapes will ripen So it’s the heart of the slopes that is Typically regarded as The the sweet spot for premier crew And grand cru burgundy The other aspect of that slide which is Really important the way christoph Explains it Is he sees he sees wine as a Or the vineyard and the importance of The vineyard is a triptych There’s three elements that are involved The first is the site

And the climate of that site the second Is the vine itself sorry the second and The third Is is man is man’s influence you can’t You can’t talk about terroir without Without talking about the influence of Man as well because so many of the Decisions Are man-made how to prepare the land What rootstock to use what clone to use What grape variety to grow That true secretary so there there are There are too many decisions that are Man-made to ignore that You go this is actually in chablis That’s on which is a grand cru Climate change which i dare say we’ll Come on to later I imagine that’s shabby again and here Again more so The soil profiles This is this is actually a really Important point that he’s making there In so many parts of europe particularly They grow a variety of different grape Varieties so take bordeaux where they Grow Many different red grapes and obviously Three or four major ones And part of that is to hedge their risks So that if one grape variety doesn’t Work in a particular vintage Maybe one of the other ones will work Better and it makes perfect sense where

You’ve got Differences in terroir to have different Grapes that’s not the way burgundy Has evolved burgundy has involved Evolved loft largely with two main Grapes obviously Pinot noir and chardonnay if you’ve only Got those two grapes You haven’t got the um the safety the Safety blanket if you want of other Grapes to save the day It makes it all the more important to Understand The site and the soil that you’ve that You’re playing with There we go let me see if i can uh All i need to do now is stop screen Sharing Oops i’m not sure i can do that um Okay i think That should okay There we go now i have actually lost Uh kristoff for the moment um which Probably means that you have as well Which is Unfortunate because i’m hoping he’s Going to be on hand to Answer questions here but what i’m going To do is i’m going to go into q a And i’m going to christophe can you hear Me It doesn’t look like it i think he may Be rejoining because it looks if he’d Possibly frozen christoph can you hear

Me Yes i are you you heard me or not Excellent i can hear you but i can’t see You Yes i have some problem i’m more useful In the video than With a zoom okay I don’t know what i have to do to be if You earn me that’s the the mainly thing I think but Look i can hear you now and what i’m Going to do is i’m going to go into the Q a And i’m going to uh ask one or two of The the questions that are here okay Okay so there’s a question here about Climate change and how climate change Has changed the profile of white Burgundy in particular So do do you think that white burgundy Stylistically Has changed as a result of Climate change in recent years and Whether if so whether those changes are Permanent yeah i think yes I i think the the impact of the the Climate change is uh Evident uh for the white Or for the red tooth the first things When you Us when we have to organize the harvest We have to Harvest earlier and earlier Remember the first time i harvest it was

Mainly at the end of september and October and today sometime it could be At the end of august okay So uh it’s a an important thing because The maturation between That different uh period is different Okay When you are in a debate at the Beginning of september Or the end of uh october of the end of September Uh the the length of the the day is not The same Uh the difference between the Temperature between the night and the The day is different so the influence is Very important For the the growth and the maturity Uh that that is the big challenge for us Okay Uh so the impact uh Is at the end if you take the analyst Uh we don’t have uh the the mainly uh Things you you see sugar acidity etc You don’t have a big difference okay But sometime in the taste it could so I will say yes uh the the change of the Cream i have Influenced the the the white and the red Wine Especially for the date of the harvest Mainly yes Okay all right thanks christoph Christophe just can you try

Turning your camera off and on again Yeah yeah that’s why i i have something Which is i’m not used On my [Music] Uh It’s interesting the questions about Climate change i’m actually drinking at The moment Um a bottle of uh bulgoin alligator Now borgo and aligote has never been my Favorite burgundy grape and this is a First vintage that i’ve tried from Dominately from alba bishop it’s Delicious and i just don’t think that Uh bogoin aligote tasted like this Even 10 years ago it’s got a ripeness to It And a flesh in the middle palette That i i really wouldn’t have expected So it just goes to show that i think There are Stylistic changes i know one of the Stylistic changes i find And i don’t think it’s necessarily a bad Thing Is that white burgundy seems to be it Seems to be more enjoyable A bit earlier than it used to be and i Think that even at Certainly at village level and even at Premier crew level The wines can be really enjoyable three Or four years old

Which wasn’t always the case before and So to me To my mind there have been some some Small differences there certainly Um christoph that doesn’t seem to have Worked with the camera no no i i Suspect you heard me uh we can still Hear you that’s absolutely that’s The mainly things okay that’s that’s That’s that’s fine Um can you um the the one The question also asked at chat agree The vines we saw In the the plot there the chardonnay Plot there the vines have stakes On them is that to protect against wind Or is it to keep the shoots up no no the Sticks you show is for Young plants we have to put and in that Part we are not able to Plow okay even with a horse etc because This area is too difficult so we have Only to cut the grass And it’s uh it’s to protect the young Plants okay When you cut the grass all right perfect And while we’re just talking about Climate change and wine styles A good question’s been asked here i just Mentioned that i thought good white Burgundy Is easier to drink younger than it used To be Do you think the wines being pretty the

White burgundy’s Being produced now can last the 20 30 even 40 years that white burgundy Is used to in the past I will say it’s to my mind I will say i never practice Old white burgundy i have some example I remember i can taste emerson every Year from 30 40 years old that i taste and i can Appreciate a lot But i don’t expect A lot of time to to age it so long Yes you can take some bottles to to do That but To my mind i will say it depends If it’s a ligote regional village or Micro grand cru But in general for for example a grand Cru 10 20 years okay perhaps it would be Perhaps more But it was not my my Way of life of doing the white wine In general so i will say for me Um the climate change will not change A lot of things for the aging because i Don’t expect To have a white one for 30 or 40 years Old So okay all right me neither i must say I’m i’m lucky to have one or two nice White burgundies here at home And even at grand cru level i suspect

I’ll find Good occasions to drink them before They’re 10 years old probably Um so anyway it does come down to Personal taste i guess as well There’s a question here which is really Relevant because ah christoph we have You uh I try to do something fantastic that’s That’s true I i would help with that okay okay okay Um there’s a question here which is Quite a big question Um but you’ve been instrumental in Turning In converting all uh albert b Shows estates to organic viticulture In recent years um how much What’s your view of copper how much Copper Has been used in the past how much is Used now And i mean is it just a question if if Too much copper has been used in the Past Is it just a question of it taking time For the copper to Metabolize in the soil okay yes When we talk about organic viticulture That is the mainly thing we talk about The copper uh i have to say that In the past we use more copper than Today We forget that and that’s true that

With organic viticulture the mainly Product to use against mildew Is copper so we talk about copper a lot I will say that it’s a problem that’s Correct and uh people um to talk about It’s a good thing because even if you Are not In organic viticulture you have to think About It it’s important uh our challenge Today is to find the way to Reduce more and more the copper that’s Why we can use plants That’s why we use uh many other Information like the weather like things Like that We use many uh tractors which are More well equipped to spray in a better Condition in Efficient condition that is many things But i think uh it will impossible To forget the copper it will be Impossible we can Reduce we can use it uh As best as possible but it was Impossible Not to use it okay and uh For a small story uh we talked about the Copper The first time i heard it it was when i Studied in bordeaux Because uh you have even if In burgundy it’s not good thing to have Copper and soil

But the soil in burgundy is more basic Okay and the soul in bordeaux Is more acid and the the copper is more Dangerous In acid soil than in basic soil for Things Second things in bordeaux you have a lot Of sauvignon And the sauvignon with the kind of Aramas they don’t like the copper Because it’s chilled joel and copper is Not good So that’s why they talk about a lot About copper in bordeaux But they are right you have to take care And To try not to use uh to use as less as Possible But not to use it it’s impossible for me Yeah okay do you think as a matter of Interest I know people are talking about um other Bio controls of mildew Do you think that science will come up With Organic alternatives to copper Ah it will not be alternative it will be A complement But not alternative no not possible Because The copper why we use copper in organic Viticulture Uh if you compare with um what we you They are called uh classical viticulture

Okay it’s a product which is a contact Product Only on the not inside the plants Okay and uh but a lot of Products which are used against mildew In conventional classical viticulture The problem is the mildew adapt To the product and it transform it And after the product is not efficient That is a big problem With copper it’s a mineral product and The the the mushroom the mildew for Example with azim Is not able to transform a to adapt So the copper will be always efficient On the contrary of other products which Are more able to To use because inside the plants again The rain is better etc You can keep a long time but in fact Today when you use a kind of product They say uh This year no more than four times Because we are afraid that It will change that is a big problem we Have In uh classical viticultures that’s why We are like different from Chemical industry that’s true i i don’t Want I don’t want to say it’s bad thing but Uh some problem we can have With a product which are efficient and Not the

The mainly kind of product which is like That Is again butter this okay during the 89 at the beginning of the 80 we saw So many rocks even if the people use Product again bototis and they say yes Because the butcher this is a Mushroom which is the most able to Transform and to be Able to adapt to the product report That is okay thank you christoph While we’re talking about the vineyard There are one or two questions about Everything here But while we’re still talking about the Vineyard there’s been one question about Hail what is it still practiced To seed clouds with silver Iodide to to protect the vineyards from Hail Is that still going on with the rockets Yeah yeah i think against elf We have not a lot of things uh it was Used in the past because you can go in Some museum And you see some old canon Okay so it was not a new Uh new thing uh in some Area that it was used with a plane Because it’s a to put you down do Just in in the center of the storm it’s The better efficient Things okay so i think it’s a Yes it’s a thing which but it’s not

Perfect I’m not sure that to protect The the vineyard like you can see some Example i can understand the people who Do that Because in fact when you have hail In 12 13 14 you say I have to find a solution or to reduce The damage But it could be a solution for When you have trees for april etc Because the density is very large But in fact when you have so The density we have in the vineyard you Have so many protection You have you think when you if you are In Organic production you spray some Products which are contact product And the it it was not efficient as Without that kind of potential because It can stop it Okay you have many things so that’s why I don’t believe Unfortunately that’s way of again The hair yeah it’s a it’s a tricky one Isn’t it Yeah okay um do you find with the move To Organics when you’re in the vineyards Because you’ve been i know that you Uh many of the vineyards were managed Organically even before Albert joe declared it do you see any

Change in the health of the vine in the Health of the vines In the vineyards what’s the what’s the Physical Evidence is there any physical evidence Of a change In the vineyard uh Difficult to say uh in fact uh because When you when you observe it is the look Is not so Evident between uh but Uh it’s uh not only uh uh With the growth of the line because Difficult to say that that vine is The behavior against dryness or things Like that is Is better or not i don’t know what is Important if the First before organic pericature is The how you manage the soil That is the first things because that is If you talk about a glass of wine you Have to talk About energy analogy you have to talk About viticulture And you have to talk about many things But you have to talk about the soil Because the soil in the soil you have The relation between The terroir the climate and the plants And that is the for me the first things And that is the first things i saw Uh at the beginning of the 80s in Burgundy i was surprised because

Most of the time at the end of winter You have many people who use weeding Agents So and more and more people Come back to pro and that was a big Difference I it’s not perfect there is nothing Which is perfect okay But uh you have for example you can have Problem with Uh on the slope with if you pro with the Water it can take off The ground or anything like that okay But Again dryness it’s better To probe than to use weeding agent Because the roots go a little bit deeper Ah sometimes some people say the roots Of the the vines go very Deep uh you can have that so but in fact It’s like Human people when the the roots find What they need water and what to eat They stop That don’t have to go deeper but if you Practice weeding agent you you know that You can see that the roots are more on The top Than if you probe so that is the first Thing which is very important To work with the solid and then To the behavior of the plant if it’s Organic or not Difficult to say we expect many things

Because with organic things we don’t Want to Make a assistant permanent assistance We want to help because we know that the Plant Is able to against some disease also Again some Problem and uh we want we look for Something which can help the plants To against something like that by Herself that is absolutely i like that That the aim is to help the plant Combat disease on its own without human Help That makes perfect sense which evolution Does show is Possible um there’s a really i like this Question We we all understand that in burgundy That Generally speaking the soils with a Higher limestone content Are favored for chardonnay over pinot Noir Can you explain why Um i used to say to simplify Uh when we talked about the relation Between the soil and the kind of soil With the kind of wine not the variety But the kind of wine To simplify when i test i used to think About um When you you feel a sensation Of roundness fatness four or four in a

While most of the time It comes from because the quantity of Clay Because exposition which is very sunny Uh but if you find something which is More Like not like your but more like a line Uh it becomes because the limestone Because altitude because comb uh Because other exposition so you So that is to simplify the mainly things Which could influence uh not only the Growth of the vines But the style of the wine okay that’s Why All the wine maker it’s very important To know where it’s come from Because you know that that kind of wine You will not Expect to have something like a line Because it’s more On the uh heavy soil on a lot of clay But you know that wine is more the Energies Is more in altitude is more on you have More limestone on it Etc you say yes i can have Some minerality style and you will Adapt the vinification the aging the Buckling for all To respect that difference because we Can’t change it It’s not possible it’s where uh Alberta last day

Uh we people some asked the what is the The style of albert bishou and I i my answer was it is a style from Where it come from That is a good good good answer And i i should add there and look this Isn’t meant to be a A publicity for lb show particularly This evening But at every albert show have i think Six different domains now But each domain has its own team Managing so that that team really gets To know the vineyard They get to know the vines they get to Know the soils they Understand what they’re doing and that’s Really important that you have dedicated Teams in each place Really understand that the place the Wide the grapes come from If i can add a small example We talked about chardonnay in chablis we Talked about chardonnay In kotor it’s a nearly one hour By car okay but it’s completely Different You drive faster than i do christopher Maybe you’ve got a helicopter yes well One hour and a half okay That’s very true um a good question here In the video you showed the three Different Holes that you dug at different soils in

Them So okay so you have that knowledge now Of the different soil of the different Soils and Orizon so what do you do with that how Does that influence the way you manage The vines And does it influence when you pick the Grapes for instance Uh first it was more to understand Why the behavior of that part of the Plants is like that what Kind of grapes we have the soil is not The only thing you see You have it was concave like here you See So exposition is different and i know Each time On the right side it’s more sunny and Sometimes it’s More uh super mature and the other side Is less mature What we have to think is the mix of it Of that And it is the the mainly idea of the of The film Uh it is um to think that uh When you are in the in a place which is Well known It’s not only a one style okay You have many things details inside It could be different plants different Age Different root stock different soil

Different uh So a different exposition if you have a Thing like that So our job is before the harvest To say yes i will have to think about The the mix of it not only one part etc That is The mainly problem and that was Something which is very interesting in In your job uh but Not easy in fact and uh so For the to answer your question uh You have some evidence you can see one Part the roots It’s not very deep because it is on the Rock okay The other part is deeper that i can Understand that Most of the time if you are on the rock I can understand the plants is more Difficult to grow It’s simple like that uh Because if you have more earth [Music] Drier for what wetness executable Humidity Is better for the plants so i can Understand why That plants on the right side grow or In the middle rose in the better Condition than in the left and in the Right That is something like that okay okay so It’s just

It’s just increased understanding all The way through there are so many Questions about Climate change here um is One which is uh it’s a good one bordeaux As you know is looking at new grape Varieties and has Authorized new grape varieties to be Planted for Bordeaux rouge and bordeaux superior is Burgundy looking at Any new grapes Yeah when you talk about the climate Change Uh everywhere in the world but For example in burgundy what people say In general We have perhaps to allowed Irrigation which is forbidden Okay if you have dryness like we have in Some Last vintage uh the second thing is to Say Yes we have to use different uh plants Perhaps syrah or anything like that okay Why not i i don’t say that in the future You will have it but uh in fact I think today we have some Way to to have answer to what The climate change uh yes it would be Difficult if you want to be sure to Produce A big quantity each year Yes you can practice variation the

Problem with to find the water Where you have to find the water okay uh It’s not like in some area like for Example In chattanooga park or you you can take The water in pateron etc But in burgundy you have many place it’s Not possible Even to bring uh to bring many many Water The the only time you are allowed to Use water it was for the young plants But the young plants don’t produce Okay but the roots are on the top and The when you have dryness That is the young plants who will suffer The first I would suffer the first so irrigation Yeah why not have but i i will be sure i Will Never see in my life uh to change the Plants We have many kinds of pino we have many Kinds of chardonnay And i think we have especially to To study what kind of chardonnay is more Able Uh and what kind of rootstock first The rootstock because i Yes we in berlin we don’t we don’t have Many choice because habitude But perhaps you have to study different Rootstock perhaps some rootstock which Are used in south

Of france but not usually in burgundy Sometimes it could be good sometimes not Okay because you have Different things relation between the Plants and the roots Is not so evident but white so I think we have many things to do uh Before you change the plants I thought you might say that and i Totally agree I think we sometimes forget that in most Of northern europe Wine producers spent the best part of The 20th century Helping vines ripen the grapes more Quickly Everything was aimed at ripening the Grapes more quickly some of those Actions Can be reversed in terms of selection of Rootstock root stockings Selection of clone planting densities Canopy management everything else so There’s uh there’s a lot That can be changed there do you think And i i mean this Is a it’s such a pertinent question But with climate change it does mean That certain appellations Which before might have been not so Highly regarded Like ode kotonui or cotabon sontone Do you think that these appalachians are Going to gain in

Prominence uh over the coming years Uh i i live in new york so i know The problem okay in the small village Northcote Uh so that is the fact people Talk about a lot of especially when you Have dryness or hotness About the effect which is very important Of the altitude That’s why we talk about outcode for Example because altitude You have between 300 350 Meters etc if you control and if you Compare with Uh the court with Two 220 dollars but you have The slope so yes We can think about that uh but uh I will say it’s not the only reason to Have a Grand cru with the altitude You have other things so i think uh Yes the the impact is sure especially When you have The last vintage in 18 19 20 We saw the difference that’s true and we Saw uh sometimes more minority In a in a in a vineyard which is in more In altitude but uh It’s not the only things you you have Many other things To give a great wine so But that’s true that some uh what we Learned

What i learned at school several years Ago Not a lot but several years ago it was Uh Some rules can change you say yes That kind of exposition is better than That kind But perhaps it will change not Yeah christopher i think we do need to Talk because there’s been Fairly dramatic pictures of um Attempts at frost potential prevention In burgundy and across france in recent Weeks What are your how do you see that Progressing because it’s It’s obviously becoming a more regular Event Yeah um it sounds as if burgundy has Been Badly hit in some cases Especially for the the white especially For chardonnay Yeah because it’s because it’s because It buds earlier than pinot noir Yes so and uh Chardonnay is a little bit less vigorous Than clean noir okay uh for example Um you know you have what we practice in Pinot noir it’s more important than in Chardonnay it’s what we Call the building because you have two Birds okay And pinot noir you have a lot two birds

Which are able to grow together And but in chardonnay you have less So if you have problem with frost with One bird You don’t have a lot of other birds To to replace it okay and If you have most of the time they are Not able To have many branches Not a lot that’s why so yes it’s a big Problem It’s too early to have a very precise Idea Especially for the vintage because uh we Are not on the vintage We have may june july we can have health We can have disease we can have Bad condition for the following so but That’s true especially with chardonnay Even in chablis [Music] Macon etc so damage is very Very important for me and for pino it’s Different You have big damage some part sometimes The damage is Less important but we have damage but i I believe more in pinot because The growth of the pino was as you said Earlier So it was more resistant against uh The force but that kind of frost I think i’m not sure that sometimes Some one all the wine worlds which is

Always alive Can talk about that kind of frost which Was So large so intense Several days and uh with the the impact Especially with shadow i don’t think Even if chablis for example they are More used again Frost then we use the abstract okay That we we talked about we have two team Not far away from One half hour okay my car with Chardonnay But it’s um they have the culture Because In the past it was more uh often to have For Uh in chablis that’s why they they spray They have all the It’s another culture but even in chablis Except for Perhaps for them when they use electric Wires Or when they use uh spray Water and they can reduce a little bit The damage When you use the candles no not a lot Because it was what we call a Black frost it was not a white frost and There is a Big difference between white for white Forest is mainly Things we have in spring okay and you Have two level of temperature

You have underground with this coal and On the top Which is more uh higher okay that’s why Some people use i want to use Helicopters you Want to use a propeller something data To mix The the two air that year it was a black Force Break frost it was the temperature on The top On the ground not a big difference I think there’s a difference in english We make the difference between Uh a grand frost and an airborne frost Exactly does that make sense yes okay um If you kristoff if money was no object If if if you didn’t have to worry about Money and based on your experience in Chablis Do you have a preferred method of Frost prevention Right uh i think The problem with yeah i will say the Water Will spread the water that this spray But because yes electricity It will be nuclear electricity okay Many people want to use electricity for The car for the et cetera okay So i would say the the problem was It was the problem this year that the Frost uh It takes a long time and it begins

Earlier In the night and it finished at Nine or ten so they have to use and Several days So they have to use a lot of water and At the end They were afraid to miss water Because they take water in a lakh like The bin yeah I think they can take insurance i don’t Know but in like the bench sure But they see the level of the lake Absolutely That’s it so that is the limit another Things Uh when the the the plants are gross Because we the the growth of the vine is More and more Earlier is one of the impact of the Change of the climate And so the problem that the time when You can Frost is always the same why that is a Big problem If you the divine growth at the middle Of april And at weekends and you are froze until Middle of may okay it’s nearly one month But today sometimes it becomes earlier Than the middle of April so the the length the risk is more Important for a long time And the the problem is is the Divine growth very earlier when it grows

Like that It’s not possible to use water because The ice Which protects the plants we can break The plants too so we have a limit The same with electric wire if the plant Is like that with the electric wire The hotness from the electric is not Sufficient For the other part okay each There is nothing perfect but i can Understand we try because More and more we have the problem we Have to have to find A solution not to prevent but to Try to reduce yeah Okay it’s a it’s such a difficult area Isn’t it and it’s It’s it’s they’re dramatic pictures that We see of the code With all the the the candles and yet at The same time We see the pictures in the morning with All the smoke over the vineyards and Everything else and it’s Uh it’s not a happy site uh in so many Ways Especially when you know that uh it’s Not efficient It could be in some cases but not in That case if only we could do with The causes rather than the symptoms but That is a much bigger subject Um there’s a there’s a question here i

Really like Because it’s a commercial question and It’s very important So over the last sort of 40 or 50 years A lot of producers have made a point Of green harvesting um in order to Restrict the yield and to hit the Uh the legal regulatory yields For both pinot noir and chardonnay do You think that With climate change and maybe with Organics And maybe with modern understanding Do you think the current legal limits For uh for yields Are correct or could they change in Future I can’t answer with the president Precise answer because i don’t know the Future but I think the kind of yield we have today Is correct uh i think it’s not excessive It’s not too low it’s not excessive i Gave you an example some people Can have the question uh yes or organic Viticulture You produce less than classical Literature No you produce the same that’s true if You Talk about cereals or things like that Which huge Build yes a man which is in organic Pollution

Will produce less than the classical Okay But not in particular i think the yield We have are not um Are not so bad uh and To practice greenhouse is not uh very New In fact when you talk about all wine Growers In the 18s it was no impossible to Practice with us Because some people are afraid about Frost They say yes we produce more this year But perhaps like next year we have frost Okay that is that so that’s why uh today It’s more um in the new generation It’s more in your mind to practice green Hours but In fact you have to it’s not a simple Decision You have to count to be sure because For example you can have many grapes but If you have a big dryness during the Maturation You will have not juice inside Absolutely But not juice so that’s key and i know That’s something you’ve seen in recent Vintages that The volume of juice you’ve had from the Berries Has been disappointing exactly okay Yeah um in the 18 for example

With pinot noir we have us some now What i used to say that you choose the Data of the harvest If you want to do the correct job as Better as possible Is more and more difficult and The last three vintage a for example 18 We have we begin here we go here we stop We come back here etc with the pinot Noir In 18 when we come back in The same area we can lose nearly 20 Percent Because it was very hot it disappear Okay That is a thing yes we have to adapt It’s uh it’s a big figure isn’t it That’s a big big production in volume Um there’s a apologies for the um Favoritism here But there’s a question from richard Stove in bradford who I’m pretty sure i went to school with But anyway richard i’ll Leave that to you to tell me whether That’s true or not um Christoph do you think you’ve you’ve Worked in bordeaux i know that you taste Wines from All over the world do you think that in The last few years burgundy Has learned anything from practices Elsewhere in the world With pinot noir in chardonnay oh

First things uh the pinot noir is not A very easy variety you have many Variety which are easier than opinion One Okay that can explain that it’s Chardonnay Is more you can find more chardonnay in The world than pinot noir Okay and uh because it’s white because It’s chardonnay But pinot noir is more complex variety And [Music] Sometimes uh we don’t know okay So i don’t think um you would say the The The health of the the burgundy i Will show to the uh Understood the question you would say But the question is whether whether Burgundy A lot of you know burgundy wine makers These days they spend time doing working Vintages in In california or australia or new Zealand and some burgundy companies Own producers in oregon or Elsewhere what do you think burgundy has Learned from them I i think everywhere you have to go you Will learn something But um what i can say that I i’m very lucky to to meet many Wine makers from california chile

South africa australia which came to us And with this we discussed and some of Them they produced pinot noir and Chardonnay Each time they they are Very surprised to uh We are able to have a kind of pinot noir And chardonnay which could be sometimes Very mineral Very precise very not so fat As they used to have i don’t want to say That it’s Like uh everywhere in the world because You have some place you you can have the Same results but in burgundy But a lot of times you have chardonnay And pinot noir Which are planted in some areas which Are too hot And the style i i will say is good wine Very good wine okay But uh you don’t have the freshness that You can find In burgundy most of the time Okay all right thank you um christoph Look there are lots of questions i’m Conscious we’ve already gone over the Hour but there’s Almost 300 people still participating um Lydia are you happy if we carry on and Kristoff Are you happy to carry on for a few Minutes still Yeah fine from me

I think so he’s still there um There’s a question here which i think is A really good one it’s one that i’m Really interested in because To my mind beaujolais Has beautily has changed and Particularly crew beaujolais Has changed quite a lot over the last 20 Years And the question here is how you Approach the vinification Of gamay in beaujolais do you vinify it In a traditional beaujolais style or do You vinify it in a In a code door style it’s a mix It’s a mix of both because uh For example if you take the example of Pizzage Quenching i have the word punching Though When you the the gummy is The skin of the gummy is completely Different from the skin of the pineal So you have to adapt so to practice pj It could be a good thing with the game But not too much And that is a big change with the The traditional beaujolais verification To keep some stem but not 100 It depends so yeah i think uh We have to the you have a kind of Evolution especially in the crude Beaujolais because more and more people They feel yeah it’s a clue and you can

Compare credibility with the crew from The coat You have to take care of that that kind Of wine is able to age like You take muller i i was lucky to taste Some Old mula avon and i look for it it’s From cordoba So you have to take care to vidify it Like to extract what you need To age the wine but you have to take Care of the extraction is not the same Like the pino so but i think the Big evolution i i i like the answer Christoph because i know that that Reflects uh bishop’s attitude generally Which is that Nothing is systematic everything Depends it depends on the vintage it Depends on the ripeness of the grapes it Depends on the health of the grapes I used to say in analogy in a wine you Have Only one room but you have many Exceptions It’s so true oh gosh the joys of being a Winemaker And the decisions that have to be made On a on a on a daily basis Yeah yeah that’s what we have i have to Talk about i am here Okay but i am very lucky to be with a Very good You talk about the team at the beginning

But it’s very Important it’s a team each people uh Bring his own experience we discuss and We learn each time because each day We wake up we learn something new but That is very important to have a team Um some people say only one man can Decide for all Yes perhaps some but i’m not able That’s very good i like i like the Attitude and the and the humility Um in terms of in terms of clones Um i know that From the time we’ve spent together in The past that you like to plant A variety of clones you prefer not to Have a single clone per vineyard do you Like diversity Absolutely do you but are Again coming back to climate change And the the new conditions are Different clones being developed which Help you in your decisions with regards To clonal selection Uh sure it will be possible because Uh some clones you know At the beginning of at the end of the 70s or the 80s The job was to find something which is Because we don’t We have perhaps too much production we Need sugar because we Not powerful enough so you we look for Clones which are able to

Have very concentrated things etc And we forget some clones which are Perhaps not so Good but today the mix of Each could be perhaps a good thing yeah But I i like in the life you need uh high People to Small people big people that thing etc And And one vine which is able to bear Uh six or seven grapes one vine which is Able only to bear Three grapes some grapes which are Bigger some grapes which are smaller That is the mix which is interesting and That is the better way to be able to Adapt Perhaps absolutely no very good Um of course there’s so many questions Here i don’t know where to start Kristoff trunk disease um How do you fight what percentage of the Vineyard do you lose each year To drug diseases and how do you fight it I have some problem with my video but Not probably i was the sound i expect The disease the structure is sorry sorry Don’t i was practiced by the The video yeah the question was it’s It’s about Trunk trunk disease the diseases of the Of the of the vine itself yeah um Like like uh utils and that sort of

Thing Dieback what percentage of the the Damage what percentage of the vines Do you expect to lose each year and How are you fighting it uh in general You know when You have two choice when you manage your Veneer Uh you have to when you decided to Replant all the vines Or to replant only the plants who die Okay in general i consider Between one 1.5 percent It’s logical yes when you have more than Two persons you have a problem it could Be frost it could be Uh isca it could be tpus it could be Many things Okay so the average 1.5 each year Yes so when you have one hectares Ten thousand plain query cards it’s 150 Plants Very clear And is there anything you can do to To fight it or do you just it just you Just have to accept it Today we have to accept it we have some Disease we can We look for solution okay but today we Have some disease We don’t have the answer and especially Esca for example yes we know that Some things can increase the

The the risk of esca or okay But the weather is important too Some vintage we don’t have a lot of esca Some details we have a lot Even if we have the same practice so the Influence of the weather Is important but in fact Against that kind of disease we have no Real solution And more and more it’s important more And more Will become a problem okay and i don’t Talk about some disease i don’t know Today Perhaps we discover in the future okay Some beerus or anything like that Like you have with some trees or New diseases we discover some diseases Which come Perhaps come back from the past we Forget them Some diseases which are well known in Some country But not here but they come Okay we when you co you talk about uh For example dorsophil Uh suzuki it was new for us in uh In 2014 okay It was but perhaps we will have more and More we don’t know Okay yeah Absolutely okay sorry i’m just sending One or two Answers here um christoph this

I mean people always are interested in Looking at the new vintage coming on Stream and what What we can expect how is the 2000 and What what are your thoughts on the 2020 Vintage And it’s too early to talk about 2021 But uh can you tell us a bit about the 2020 vintage Uh i think I will compare last [Music] You know a recent zoom i will say that Uh When i talk i have to talk about 19. but I say when i talk of the 19 I feel obliged to talk about the the 18 19 and the 20 because in each case We have warmness we have dryness Not at the same time but not with the Same effect Not with the same year like 18 was Higher than 19 and 20. but I say that that kind of vintage like 19 And 20 For me at the beginning it was difficult To appreciate Because when you have something which is Too much concentrate because the yellow Was very low And you have a dryness you have not a Lot of juice a ratio Between the solid part and liquid part Which is not very good

For to produce and uh it’s more Difficult The aging is more and more important but For that kind of vintage We have a big solid part Um if you compare with the liquid part Okay So at the beginning of the dieting i was A little bit disappointed if i compare With the 18 And after the aging i said yes I appreciate a lot that kind of vintage Is different but i appreciate it but We need that kind of aging very other i Would say The same for the 20 20 and 19 I have the same opinion at the beginning But I believe in it but i know the aging is Very very Very important okay interesting so So we’re just gonna have to taste and Make up our own minds Fantastic exactly this one i’m gonna Wind up in In in a minute i’m sorry to all of those Whose questions we haven’t got around to But a question that i do like and i Think christoph will like as well and we Should We should finish on a a bubbly note um One of the questions was cremon de Bourgoin Has suddenly in the last few years

Has become more popular again and i’ll Be sure make an extremely good example What have you what are your views of Kramer what challenges does it Pose you as a viticulturist in terms of Preparing the grapes for cremo And how do you see its future okay Uh we yes i am very fond of cremon Borgoing i think It’s a product which The quality increased a lot from the Last 20 years Uh and i will not talk about champagne Okay I will not make the mistake but i think We can have very very good product And different kind of products but uh we Produce Creme on that’s true not on the estate Okay Because uh when you produce crema You must manage the vineyard nearly like You manage in champagne Mainly for the yale the things like that The kind of a variety Because you need juice you need Something which is not too much Too mature okay you have to take care Though when you planted a vineyard to Produce a Crema you have to think crema first you Don’t have to think Wine okay yeah It’s a look it’s a really good point and

Sorry i’ve forgotten that you you don’t Grow grapes for creme or yourself No no so we have some contracts okay Where We take the grapes and we press and we Make the juice and The wine for to for the champagne Yeah but uh but we don’t have on the on The vineyard that’s really interesting And of course in champaign They’ve got the opposite situation where They’re used to growing grapes for Sparkling And now because they’re they’re making Red wines for rose And cottage they’re still white from Champagne and becoming fashionable again Now they’re having to plant vineyards to Make still rain So my understanding is they’re planting Dijon clones of uh Yeah because never forget one of the Mistakes we made The 70s especially with pinot noir It was when we talked a lot about Selection colonel It was to use clothes which were Selected in champaign first Because they are more and that kind of Cloth for the summer That’s why we have a big job from many People To to look for other kind of clones Which are more adaptable the quality

And the the kind of wine we expect in Burundi That was a big change between the 80s And today Yeah absolutely christoph one final Question which i should have asked Earlier because it’s an important one But i think a lot of us would be really Interested to know We saw pictures earlier of plowing and Pictures of cover crops Can you just clarify for the health For the long-term health of a vineyard And with organic viticulture do you have A preference Between cover crops and ploughing And the balance between the two i think We need We need both if i talk about cover crop This is because when you stop with the Engine We talk about flowing logical And plowing is a good thing but it’s Nothing is good perfectly good and The bad thing is it costs a lot the Clone times uh You you have to know big knowledge Because each soul don’t react in the Same way The weather don’t help you et cetera It’s not necessarily Good for the life inside Even if we take care not to go too deep But i’m not sure it’s good for the life

It’s all if you practice Too much so we have to think about Things which can We can manage both cover crop blowing To blow less perhaps to give something In the soil which is good for life for The soil For different for warms or smaller Meacuries and things like that so that Way we need both But the big problem is uh Where many things we don’t know about That kind of Uh practice and the big problem is here The density With high density we have competition Between all the kind of weeds you use And the and the vines especially uh if You have dryness okay So that’s why we have to take care it’s Easier to practice that kind of things For example in all so in vineyards where You are planted two meters Okay but with high density You can have a big problem very quickly So that’s why you have to take care and Combine both Throwing and cover so christoph Look i’m so grateful your answer to that Question Epitomizes to my mind your approach to Viticulture Which is that it is not black and white That actually

A combination of so many factors can Help you achieve the aims that you want A combination of plants a combination of Science and knowledge and experience And and that is if there’s one thing I’ve learned from the time i spent With you on freezing mornings in uh In the um over the years It is this fact that there’s so much to Learn and there is no one single answer It is a question of experience Understanding Humility in the face of nature and Accepting that there’s always more you Can More you can learn and more you can do i Love that um Christoph thank you so much for joining Us this evening thank you to the Audience a huge audience and To the many of you who’ve joined us Right till the end really grateful Um and i’m sorry i didn’t get around to All the questions Uh they were all valid and uh hopefully You’ll find answers in other ways to Those And also thank you to it’s quite clear From the chat A big thank you to lydia and wsct global Because these sessions wow what a Following And it shows how valuable they are to to Wine students

All over the world so lydia wset keep up The good work Thanks so much and uh from christoph and Myself Good night and uh keep trying something Richard Yes you can your help i will make A big thanks to richard because i i Appreciate a lot When he come in burgundy i i appreciate The The way he’s feeling uh his uh His knowledge uh his pedagogy And it’s a always a second way to See the vineyard and to understand Burgundy wine Especially with the film i discovered The film With your perfect english is okay Is great film that sets all this off so Thank you christoph thanks for your Initiative because you’re a You’re a busy man and i know that now Or hopefully soon when the um when frost Is out of the way You will probably be out of the out in The vineyards doing the A bonjournage on the birds of the pinot Noir In order to ensure that you’ve got a Good crop this year yeah thanks so much For your time Very good thanks to everybody okay see You soon