Alternative Australia with Julia Lambeth

All right good Evening or um afternoon morning uh Depending on where you are Dialing in from welcome to the next in Our series of webinars at wct school London My name is julia lambeth i am one of The educators at wset school london Um i teach mainly wines um but have a Firm interest in Um all other drinks really um So i am very much looking forward to Talking to you about Alternative australia this evening Um just to give you a little bit of Background on Why this as a topic um i guess the main Thing is that i really like australian Wines Um i think a few of you do too which is Why you’re here Uh i was lucky enough a few years ago Um to go over to australia Um i actually won a blind tasting Competition Um that was hosted by wines of australia And And that gave me the opportunity to go Over do a little trip Wine tasting trip taste loads of awesome Wines Um and for someone who was already clean On australian wines that um Really just cemented it um and this was

Sort of one of the The takeaways from that trip the idea of Alternative australia That there are producers planting great Varieties or doing things slightly Differently To the norm to what we’ve seen Historically Um so following on from that my plan had Been Well earlier in the year i was planning To do a tasting at our Um building at the school uh near london Bridge However as you all know um that didn’t Happen So um the next best thing is this i’m Going to Talk about some of the alternative grape Varieties alternative wines With the hope to one day tasting once Again So Starting at the beginning with just a Bit of an introduction to what What i mean by alternative here um So we’re going to look at lots of Different great varieties As part of this session so some will Focus on a little bit more some is just More of a Kind of mention um but by alternative It’s It’s really not the usual so when we

Think of the More popular plant grape varieties in Australia Obviously we’re talking about uh shiraz And chardonnay But there’s also cabernet sauvignon Merlot grenache riesling Semyon uh and so on All the sort of international varieties That you’ll find in many other countries As well So when we’re talking about alternative Great varieties it means um Anything else really um so we’re looking At Varieties that are planted in quite Small quantities Some of them are more regionally Specific than others Um but all of them are interesting Um summer have been actually planted for A long time i’ll have a little brief Overview of their history And then some of them have only really Started production in the last few years So it’s quite a Diverse scene in terms of great Varieties And that’s going to be the focus of the Session uh the great varieties Um and at the end i also just want to Touch a little bit on grape growing And wine making as well um just because Really it all

Kind of feeds in together Um so Let’s start with that little bit of History Um so winemaking In australia can be sort of uh Traced back to uh well quite a long time Ago it was 1832 That james busby arrived in australia With A collection of fine cuttings that he Had taken from several countries in Europe Um in fact this wasn’t the first Planting of vines There had been some a few decades Earlier But it was when busby arrived in Australia he really Realized the potential of the country For wine production And at that point it wasn’t really a Wine trade So he took it upon himself um To go back to europe to learn about Winemaking he wrote a whole book It’s actually quite impressive um if you Ever want to read it Um and yeah he basically brought back A bunch of different great varieties um Not all of which survived um As i just mentioned some of the Varieties became more popular than Others

Um but to start off with it was quite an Expansive collection Um so moving on to a couple of decades Later we get to 1868 And we get the first donchetto planted In australia By henry best so dolce is An italian grape variety um and it is Still considered An alternative grape variety today even Though it’s been planted for that long Um and in fact that vineyard has been Running for uh ever since that time Um it’s possible that the world’s oldest Dorchetto Is actually in australia rather than in Italy Um i don’t know if that’s 100 true but That’s the theory Um but it just goes to show you that Yeah the idea of Alternative isn’t a new one although it Is a growing one And there is a growing number of great Varieties And a growing proportion of alternative Great varieties that we’ll look at later Um so even by 1868 we had some Alternative varieties And by the early 1900s um The focus was on these international Varieties so As i said the shiraz and chardonnay sort Of um

Became really popular and fortified Wines at this time Are actually really important so you Might not think of australia For its fortified wines but um way back When Those were definitely the styles that Were more desirable um So wines like sherry wines like Port And they obviously don’t call them Sherry and port anymore Um but in that sort of style and it Would have been different to great Varieties typically That we use for those as we get into the Late 1900s here is where Plantings start to expand so um Great varieties like violet start to be Planted Um you can think of uh yolumba in eden Valley planting vionia Which until that point wasn’t really a Variety that had been considered much For australia So now it’s not that unusual And i think we even saw someone in the Chat earlier is drinking some violet Tonight Um but at that time it hadn’t been Considered part of the The key crop of great varieties for the Country

So already things are starting to change And then we’ve got a couple of um Particular dates uh coriolis uh the Winery and mccarran vale Plant the first uh san um These guys have taken um a real interest In italian varieties uh so you not only Will you find sangiovese there but You’ve got um Barbara nebiolo piano all sorts of Things going on And then this focus on italian varieties Continues so we get to 2000 where the Chalmers winery Imports 70 italian varieties So those of you that maybe haven’t had Much italian wine 70 varieties oh that’s a lot i mean it Is a lot but it’s also Not all the italian varieties um these Will be the ones that we’re Deemed most likely to be successful in The italian italian australian climate So one of the things we’re going to talk About a little bit later is why Why import all these different varieties Um and part of the answer to that is a Climatic one When you think about the growing Conditions in many parts of italy Particularly some of the central and Southern ones you’re looking at quite Warm dry Growing conditions um and that

Mirrors in many ways many of the Australian regions so it it just makes More sense In a lot of ways to start importing These varieties Which are going to be naturally more Suited to the climate While the existing international Varieties can work in the climate you Might find that actually there are some Better options Out there So yeah already we can see how quite Rapidly The number of great varieties starts to Change Over the course of a few years So in terms of what constitutes an Alternative great variety Looking on the wine australia website an Easy definition i found is that it’s All varieties that are not mainstream or Extensively planted So you don’t need to have a particular Number or criteria Um it’s just anything that’s not one of Those key great varieties And this has been a consideration for Several years why in australia Released in 2017 a sort of list of ones To watch The alternative varieties that they Thought would be really successful And you can see a few key ones there

Naredabala Which definitely is very successful and We’ll talk about that in a little bit More detail later Tempranillo definitely successful Um in fact i was reading some stats Earlier And this has made it into the top 10 Black grape varieties In terms of crush this year this year Yeah i think it was this year Anyway it’s definitely um Grown in the amounts being produced Um so whether this means that Tempranillo should actually no longer be Considered An alternative great variety i am not Sure Um but i will leave you to make your own Judgments on that Uh fermentino and fianna both italian Varieties Vermentino we’ll talk a little bit more About later but both of them again just Kind of Suited to these warm climates but still Making wines that are Uh refreshing fruity that have this Lovely concentration of flavour Um since 2017 uh there’s there’s more Grapes um so there’s increasing Plantings of Things like nebiolo uh italian variety Torigo nacional from portugal aesthetico

From greece bruno bellino from austria Sanchez back to italy um And that’s you know that’s barely Scratching the surface and More i mean you can think of um What else can we say some of the Northern rhine varieties marsa and rusan Which historically haven’t had A great proportion of plantings um What else was i thinking about earlier Sapphirati Georgian grape variety sagrantino Another Less known italian grape variety Zinfandel Mentioned earlier i mean yeah the list Just keeps on going Um so very much Speaking to this idea of experimentation In australia um So in 2015 which is actually the most Recent statistics Um i could find for a volume of Vineyard area the overall alternative Great variety is made up of 7.3 So um it’s not a lot arguably it will Have grown but i just don’t have any More up-to-date stats Um but it means that when we’re looking At each of these great varieties Uh actually it’s quite a small volume of Production that we’re looking at Um nevertheless as an overall picture It is an interesting thing to consider

And it’s Certainly a thing i think that’s going To become More and more important over the coming Years So um coming back to this question of Why Plant alternative great varieties why Not just stick to this chardonnay and Shiraz that we all know and love Um there’s a few potential reasons for This Um so the first one here is innovation As an idea um australian winemakers like Many winemakers around the world Um like to experiment they like to Change things up they like to see what They can do Most um winemakers will have worked in Another place and they will have gained Experience from that they may have Worked with different great varieties They can see how that works in australia How they can Make it their own um Another thing that will back this up is That of course in australia we don’t Have Legal connections between regions and Rape varieties So if you think about um regions in Europe In france and italy in spain um the laws There mean that you can’t plant just

Anything You actually can’t experiment so much to And then to keep within the laws of the Region Uh but in australia they don’t have that So it’s another Slight difference here that means that They can really do whatever they want if It’s Naviolo they’ve set their hearts on why Not give it a go Um the next point here is as a response To Climate change so Climate change is obviously having Influences on vineyards around the world Um and in australia it can mean a number Of different things Can mean warmer shorter drier growing Seasons Um and the great varieties again the International varieties that are planted Are really not always so suited to these Conditions they’re gonna need Um somewhere that’s not too warm they’re Gonna need somewhere with an amp Water supply so looking to the future And thinking about the needs of the Vines versus what’s going to be Available It does make more sense to start looking At other great varieties which may be Better suited naturally to the growing Conditions that

Are expected in australia Um and then of course the other side of That is if you have great varieties that Are better suited to production then You’re not going to need to use So much water in your vineyard you can Manage them a little bit more Sustainably And that will also kind of lead into the Um The ethics of your business if you’re Concerned about climate change And the last point about the Globalization of wine And comes from both the producer and the Consumer side so i mentioned Earlier that a lot of wine makers work In several different countries Um so they will have gained experience From working in other places and bring That back to them And then you’ll find that um we’ve got People from other countries living in Australia so They will bring with them a demand for Wines that Maybe didn’t exist um historically a few Years ago A few decades ago and then you’ve also Got People around the world who are exposed To all sorts of wines So big wine markets like um the uk America china um are actually some of

The biggest consumers Of these alternative varieties but That’s because Generally we have access to all sorts of Wines so We’ll have an idea of what a san diego Tastes like in italy But then it becomes a a bit more of an Uh a different thing what does century Basically taste like in australia how Are the two going to be able to compare Um so it’s a few factors sort of tying That together Um so from having this idea That you want to plant plants and Alternative varieties Uh you think you can make a good wine You think there’s a market for It um we’ve then got to think about some Of the practicalities How do you get new great varieties into A country It’s not as simple as james busby’s day You can’t just uh Go around on your ship and bring them Back Nowadays if you’re bringing any new Organic material into the country it has To undergo quarantine Um this is a word we’re all familiar With now Um but this has been in existence for A long time before our current status Here

And also quarantine for organic material Is normally much Longer so you’re looking at um generally Two years Quarantine before you’re able to access Any cuttings Um and the reason for this is to ensure The Health of any cuttings that you bring Over If you’ve done much wine studying you’ll Know that Several diseases pests have been spread Around the world And due to poor hygiene practices due to No one checking enough whether there was Anything wrong with them Um so things like biloxira you may know About Um kind of powdery mildew um Pierce’s disease there’s a number of Things that have been spread which um Could potentially have been more Contained so Um this really strict quarantine is part Of that process After the grapes have survived their Two-year Quarantine period then they’re able to Be planted Of course you can’t make wine with the Grapes straight off so you have to wait A couple of years you’ll also have to Try and propagate your cuttings so from

The cuttings that have survived the Quarantine you then need to have enough To create a vineyard’s worth or enough Of a vineyard to create As much wine as you want to create so It’s going to take a few years to really Get these going and to get the The right number of vines ready to Produce fruit And then after that well then you’ve You’ve got to start experimenting really With the great variety that you’ve got Seeing if it’s Um uh producing the Right amount of flavors the right Balance of acidity For a tanim thinking about if it’s Suited to this particular soil Or has the right amount of water or Sunlight to or Heat uh experimenting in the winery in Terms of Um fermentation vessels or fermentation Temperatures or extraction All of these things you know it’s Normally not going to Be the first time you get it perfectly Right Um so yeah experimentation suitability Sort of spoke about in the same sentence There Um and really i guess the final Conclusion will be you know Can you make an authentically australian

Representation of this great variety There needs to be something about it That is unique is different you’re not Just making a copy of Whatever is done in italy or spain Or um portugal so There’s quite a lot to consider i Sounds kind of like fun i’m sure and i’m Sure it’s actually quite a lot of hard Work Um but having the opportunity to create Something new is not something that most Wine makers get to do every day Um from here i just wanted to focus on a Few Of those um great varieties that i Mentioned earlier Um we would be here for a long time If i tried to talk about all of them um So i’m not going to do that But some of those key great varieties That were mentioned From 2017 and then a couple of others That have become Um more important over the intervening Years So starting with verbentino Um so vermentino for anyone who is not Familiar with it is an italian white Grape variety So it’s found in uh coastal parts of Liguria In sardinia corsica um And it makes uh dry white wines which

Have uh generally quite high acidity Um and a combination of sort of peachy Bit of stone fruit bit of citrus fruits And delicate floral characteristics Um it is generally a single varietal Wine Okay it can be blended um but generally We’re not looking at Oak or any massive wine making Techniques here It’s a wine that just has a lovely Varietal character Um that people like if it’s not one that You’re Familiar with it often appeals to fans Of sauvignon blanc So if you like that sort of dry Refreshing Aromatic style of wine then and it’s Definitely One for you to look out for Um so tried to get some stats in Where i could for the presentation um For vermintino Uh as i mentioned earlier the latest Stats of 2015 only 121 hectares planted Which is not 0.1 of the Entire australia vineyard area So um yeah so Not a particularly high volume in terms Of its production um but like with all Of these things It is important it is growing And the chalmers vineyard i mentioned

Earlier and those were the guys that Imported Those 70 italian grape varieties in 2000 Um and they were the first to import Vermintino into australia Um now apparently over 100 wineries Are growing some amount of vermintino so It is something that we can say Expect to see more of in the um Near-ish future um And for each of these key varieties that I’m going to just try and Talk about a little bit more i’ve picked Up Well i picked out a few of the um Wineries that are producing them um Again courtesy of hawaiian australia For their um useful help with this Um so we can see some uh in heathcote Some Mclaren vale uh oliver’s taranga Trentomi state and murray darling parish Hill in adelaide hill And claire valley so quite a range of Different places Um quite a range of different climates In those places so you can imagine there Are already A few different styles of mnt now Emerging From within australia The next great variety i’d like to Mention Is bruno beltina and largely because

Grunovelina isn’t an italian variety It’s not one of these which was selected To be suited to the warm Dry climates of australia and That kind of focus on climate change That i mentioned earlier Um actually bruno vault lena is a native Austrian Great variety and if you know um Much about austria you know that is Cooler than Italy so it’s actually a great variety That is not Quite so widely planted you need to find Somewhere that does have A cooler um growing environment that’s Not so warm To be suited to this particular great Variety And so you can see here we’ve got a few Places adelaide hills Is um definitely leading the charge for Green about leaner at the moment Um but also a bit in canberra and Tasmania as well Um in terms of Bringing green about lena to australia That was actually the handoff Hills winery um they Imported a number of different clones to Adelaide hills Again obviously going through the Various um Quarantine and nursery processes that i

Mentioned Um and We’re able to really recognize the Suitability Of greener bellina as a great variety to The growing conditions and the climate In adelaide hills if you’re not so Familiar with adelaide hills and This is a sort of sub-region within South australia but it’s a higher Altitude compared to some of its Neighboring regions Um i always feel like the clue is in the Name there but just In case um you vote familiar so being Higher altitude means that we have Cooler growing conditions And we have a bit more of a diurnal Range as well so we have these quite Warm sunny days And then all the evenings and which Allows the grapes to build up flavor Slowly But also maintain acidity Um so while it was the handlefield Winery that really started it off there Are now a number of different producers Um that are making wine As you can see um and it comes in A variety of styles actually this was One of the great varieties that i Was able to do a tasting of when i was Out in australia Um and what what we found was that

You’ve got Some wines wineries making wines which Are um Again varietal focused so Um stainless steel fermentation cool Temperatures Making these nice refreshing stars of Wine And others are going for slightly riper Grapes so you get more of a kind of Textural richer elements And then some styles doing more skin Contact Thinking about manipulating the skins Using the skins In with the fermentation and so Basically like an orange wine instead And that creates another distinct style Um so yeah all sorts of things going on The best examples and i think i’ve tried Managed to keep the sort of Herbaceous characteristics of Grunovelino so it’s Quite famous for having this kind of Peppery White pepper characteristics some sort Of herbaceous notes but still with Quite a um well-defined Fruit character citrus green fruits Maybe some stone fruits as well Um and you can really find some wineries That are exhibiting that um very nicely Um so you’ve got a few examples there um Incidentally honda phil

Also um growing some uh Austrian black varieties as well um so If you’re interested in any uh Blood frankish or zweigel in australia Those are the guys to go to Um and then a few others there as a Reference As well On to a couple of black Grape varieties um so naredabala Was one of the great varieties that was Sort of mentioned in 2017 as one of the Ones to watch Um and this is A great variety from southern italy Widely grown in sicily um So if you think about southern italy in Terms of its climate yeah now we’re Looking at some places that are Are pretty warm and dry so it does again Explain Why this is a great variety that is Suited to growing here Um in fact when i was doing some reading About No doubt in australia um i came across A page on james halliday’s website Talking about the suitability of nero Davila Um and it basically said If you were to try and create a great Variety try to imagine A great variety that would be best Suited to australia right now

What you would probably come up with is Neridabla So we’re quite lucky that it exists Already So part of that is down to its ability Um To suit the climate part of that is down To the style of wine it makes um lovely Fruity characters sort of red fruits Typically But not too high in alcohol not too full Bodied not too big Um there is a slight trend towards Wines that aren’t too overpowering in Australia at the moment so something That is more Medium-bodied that isn’t quite so much Of a Hit you round the face style um is Something that Again in theory is um What consumers are looking for what Winemakers are looking for Um so that does it all of it kind of Makes sense in terms of Why it’s growing in popularity Uh it’s another one of the great Varieties that was imported by the Chalmers family so They again were responsible for its Origin but Again it has grown so now more than 55 Vineyards have plantings of uh narrow Davila

Um so and i think it will continue to Expand as well Um that said it’s not been without a Little bit of controversy Um so you might notice on the label for The The coriole bottle that we’ve got on the Slide there that it just says narrow And i imagine that might be in part due To Some um protest from italy that has Occurred And basically saying that using the term Nerodevola On a bottle of australian wine is Misleading Um partly because avila is a place So the name of the great variety Nerodevla is Just because it’s a great variety from Avila Um and also partly because apparently Um australian producers were referencing Sicily or sicilian um in a lot of their Descriptions Uh so that italy is worried it’s going To confuse consumers They might be expecting something from Italy and actually get something from Um from australia instead Um of course this isn’t the first time These sorts of concerns um have occurred Uh you may remember prosecco It’s very much the same thing um

Prosecco should just be made in italy You can’t just make prosecco anywhere in The world The resolution from that was they Changed the name of the great variety From prosecco to galera um and told Everyone to stop calling it prosecco Um they still exist a few proseccos in Australia but um I’m sure they’re not supposed to Uh anyway slight tangent there uh Despite um this little bit of Controversy Um it doesn’t stop some lovely wines Being made Um so again you can see a few examples There um from croyola mclarenville Chalmers in heathcote Rush higgins in mccarran vale and Monterey In florida peninsula um noticeably these Are all Uh places that are warmer to where we Were just looking for The roon about nina plantings they are Um Definitely great varieties that have Different requirements in terms of their Vineyard Um but it doesn’t mean that you know Both of them aren’t Equally important and equally relevant Going forward Um and then antoniolo

Nebiolo has one of the key black grape Varieties From piedmont clemente in the north of Italy So if you are familiar with Italian wines you probably had some Nebiolo Maybe in the form of barolo or Barbaresco Or maybe from somewhere else Um but what is noticeable about Pretty much all nebula wines is they Make very Complex concentrated structured wines Um often the aroma profile that you get From nebiolo would be described as rose Petals and tar With fruity characteristics spicy Characteristics Oak notes um yeah Pretty big wines um And you know no one would argue that They don’t make some Very important very outstanding quality Wines There are well nebula is a great variety Um Is not the easiest great variety to grow It needs a long growing season where you Find it In in piamonte is only In the best sites only on the best Slopes if you don’t have Just the right growing conditions you

Risk Not getting the grapes ripe enough Um and so Yeah you might wonder why why would you Try Growing a great variety that can be such A challenge that could be so risky Um but i think coming back to that point Earlier of innovation Um and yeah some people do like a Challenge Uh we’ve got the label from the um Luke lambert nebula there in yarra Valley Um i mean this is guy whose passion for Nebiolo i feel is unparalleled In australia please do feel free to Correct me if i’m wrong Um but uh yeah he grows nebulae In yarra valley um historically has Produced and some Of the more classic grape varieties as Well um some chardonnay and pinot noir Um but really all he wants to do is make Nobiolo and to the extent that The plan is to stop making the other Wines and only make Leviolo just make the best nebula that You can make the best naviolo in yarra Valley Um yeah so it’s a real Focus a real passion um I don’t think most other wineries focus On that a single variety

To that extent uh but it’s pretty Impressive And let’s be fair then a below that he Makes is pretty awesome So he’s getting something right that’s For sure Um not everyone producing um Naviolo does has that much um Obsession uh so most of these other Producers will Produce some in conjunction with other Great varieties Um part of the part of the Uh the problem with it being a Challenging great variety Is that it’s not necessarily going to Ripen to the same extent every year It could be one of the earliest great Varieties um To a bud burst so it bud’s quite early And it can be one of the latest Varieties to pick so you have All of that growing season which is Useful but it means you’ve got more risk Of spring frost you’ve got more risk of Bad weather In the autumn when it comes closer to Harvest so It is a gamble um And referencing the variety of styles Here some years that gamble pays off And you’re going to get these really Kind of perfumed concentrated structured Complex wines

Which will be you know absolutely Amazing Other years it might not go so right so And we might see some lighter styles Being made Or even some rose styles um I was sort of reading about some rose Nebula the other day and thinking Oh you know why would you make a rose Out of this great variety when it’s so Highly prized as a red wine but Realistically if it’s been not the best Year and the grapes haven’t ripened to The right extent Are you gonna just not make anything Which isn’t really gonna be a smart Business decision Or you can at least make a very lovely Rose out of your grapes even if they Aren’t necessarily going to be used for Red wine production instead Um i’m not saying that all nebula rose Is for that purpose i’m sure some people Just want to make nebula rose but um It’s it’s an interesting thing to Consider there’s always got to be A use for your grapes there’s got to be Um Something you can do if the conditions Aren’t exactly perfect Um so yeah again quite a few different Climates here so you’ve got places like Um yarra valley and adelaide hills again Both more moderate in terms of their

Climate um And then you’ve got places that are a Bit warmer youth coat mclaren vale king Valley So it’s going to be an interesting Comparison i think in years to come How nebiolo reflects these different Growing conditions but also reflects the Different soils Um it is you know one of those great Varieties That has that ability to give a sense of Place So anyway maybe in a few years time what I’ll be doing is a an Australian nebula tasting and we’ll just Talk about More than ebiola’s i think that’s the Way up yeah Um those were just really a snapshot Of a few great varieties that i think Are quite interesting In australia and there are loads and Loads more as i sort of indicated Earlier on Um if you have any particular questions About any other great varieties do Um feel free to drop me a line Um here i wanted to just um add a little Bit in About another type of alternative Variety Um so it’s not just great varieties that Have been

Brought in from other countries uh There’s also some that have just been Created invented um So you can see that australia has a Scientific research Body there’s csiro um which have Actually Spent some time creating new great Varieties designed to be Suited again to australian growing Conditions And this has largely been done by Crossing existing great varieties So you take two different grape Varieties cross fertilize them Two vinifera grape varieties of course And you get a new grape variety Um i’m sure it takes a little bit more Time and experimentation Than that um but you get the idea Um interestingly with these They’ve not really taken off in the same Way You might be looking at that list of Words which are the names of the great Varieties Um i should clarify so sienna tarango Mystique rubio and taminga Tyrion are all the names of the great Varieties that have been created Um and most of them don’t really seem to Have a big commercial perspective The two exceptions are the top two uh Sienna

And tarango which have been um Sort of taken on adopted by brown the Brown brothers winery which is why you Can see the picture Of the label there um so brown brothers Has actually historically been quite Experimental In terms of the fake varieties that they Grow and they produce Um and the two great varieties that i Mentioned sienna and tarango Um are both uh black grape varieties Making red wines Um but sort of filling this criteria That i mentioned earlier really kind of Fruity pleasant Probably slightly lighter easier Drinking than some of the great Varieties i’ve mentioned just now Well suited To these growing conditions and make a Sort of fruity but not too heavy Style of red wine which um Is maybe what people are going for these Days Um will this continue to be a trend are We going to be looking at More creative great varieties I don’t know i mean there’s already Enough great varieties in the world to Try and remember as it is But keep an eye out So here is where i wanted to talk about Um

In not so much detail some of the other Alternatives So i mentioned earlier on that it’s not Just Great varieties that were changing that Could be considered alternative But also some of the great growing and Wine making So just put a few points here to really Consider Quite a lot of those is to do with great Growing so Um organic biodynamic natural Sustainable Minimal intervention um quite a few Different terms here So just kind of try and clarify each So organic we’re looking at Rape growing without synthetic chemicals This is a thing that is definitely Growing in popularity Not just in australia but in countries Around the world Um and the the only reason it’s Alternative Is it because it reflects the difference To conventional agriculture which has Taken place over the last few decades Um you know if you go back A couple of hundred years no one had These sprays but once they’ve been Invented um and they were seen as a easy Fix to some of the vineyard problems That were occurring

They became systemic in their use they Would be used every year they’d be used In every vineyard And so in that way they became Commonplace So these alternatives are in a way going Back to what Great growing would have been like Before that um So arguably not that alternative just to Clarify that Um interestingly Well i don’t know i always thought Organic was a term that was easy To understand obviously we have organic Fruits and veg you Understand it for your food consumers Apparently can get a bit confused about It they’re not exactly clear what it Means And that’s not surprising most of the Wine trade isn’t there about Those things certification isn’t easy So producers might be operating under Organic principles Not be able to state it on the label um So it is a little bit Mixed up but overall If you’re looking at something that is Um Using less chemicals in your vineyard i Mean really that can only be A good thing and again we can come back To that um

Idea of um you know climate change Sustainability it all kind of fits in Together Um biodynamic again small proportion of Growers as in every country Um it does seem to be growing so Biodynamic is Um similar to organic in terms of The lack of synthetic chemicals but There are also additional rules In terms of preparations um adherence To the lunar calendar um and a number of Other things Um so this is actually something that Was created in the 1920s So again going back to something that Actually isn’t new It’s just considered alternative now um And despite not being new um It was only in 2004 that the first Sort of biodynamic um wines in australia Um convention uh was held So yeah again it is actually relatively Recently that More biodynamic um rapes are being Produced Um that said one of the oldest certified Biodynamic producers was um the koleski Winery in barossa valley they were in 1998 so a little bit ahead of the curve There um Natural is a very ill-defined Term when it comes to wine making um It’s not legally defined in any way and

Sort of means just an absence of Any uh interference in many cases Um again this is an even smaller Proportion Of people who would be doing natural Wines Um one of the styles that maybe has got A little bit more attraction compared to Others Is the um natural sparkling ones the Petty on natural Pet nut as they’re often referred to and There are a few people Making some different styles of those Um sustainability sustainable practices Yeah only become more and more important As we’re going forward um Winemaking as with many industries can Be very wasteful Particularly in terms of the amount of Water that is needed Um and as we’ve already said the Chemicals that have been used Historically Fertilizers that have been used Historically there’s actually been a Number of things that have meant that Wine history over the last um few Decades has turned into an industry that Was not actually That good in terms of its um Environmental impact Um so again it is becoming more and more Of a focus

Not just in australia but around the World um And there are a number of things Different wineries are doing Um a good example i read about was Cullen the kind of winery in western Australia Who are thinking about kind of every Stage of the process So they’re making their bottles more Environmentally friendly Um normally this just means a bit Lighter think about some of those really Thick glass bottles you can get Transporting those only is more Expensive Um and more um environmentally costly Uh thinking about more again at cullen Thinking more about um Local sourcing of various resources Thinking about how to best manage their Waste And all of it ties in together so Changes are footed there as well The minimal intervention is another um Not legally defined term um But it’s used by producers um Who basically only do what is needed for The grapes or the wine when it’s needed So rather than have this Um systematic process if you do the same Thing every year at the same time You get the same result um it’s more About being in tune with

The vineyards the grapes the wine as It’s being produced um And this can kind of tie into the sort Of sustainable and other organic Principles as well Um and again it can result in some Styles which some people might describe As funky Um but there are some very high quality Wines Um being produced with this ethos with This idea Um in fact one of the places where this Seemed to be a little bit More prevalent maybe than in other Places when i was visiting australia was In the basket range area Near to adelaide hills um which does Lead me to mention Um ever so briefly the ochota barrels Winery I don’t know if any of you have had any Of their wines um But sadly their winemaker passed away The last couple of weeks And uh this guy was an absolute legend Um So if it’s a winery you’re not familiar With um do look them up Um yeah making some fantastic wines Um it was tara’s was the name of the Owner Um a really passionate guy um had this Kind of

Pizza restaurant in an old church Just had a great time there great maker Of cocktails great um To talk about his wines uh yeah really Cool guy Anyway um so those were a few winery Sorry great growing things a couple of Winery things just to mention as well um Alternatives in terms of fermentation Vessels But again not really new here um Some various instances of amphora being Used So i obviously could have not put this Amazing picture The lethbridge winery um in So that’s some of these staff that work There um Hiding behind their various amphora um I mean this is something that was used Way back when Wasn’t it we’re talking about um some of The original vessels that were used for Fermenting wine Which have um arguably been in use in Some places throughout that time but are Now Coming back into fashion in more sort of Modern Wine making environments um I guess there’s a similar thought behind Some of the concrete egg fermenters Again reading the other day an article About um concrete egg fermenters

And it started with does any Self-respecting winery these days not Have A concrete egg fermenter um and i hadn’t Realized it had quite got to that state But there you go Um so as the name suggests these are Just egg-shaped rather than being Um sort of typical tanks or squares that You traditionally see Um and the argument for this is that the Shape actually Um helps manage the um the caps During fermentation so by having Something that is more curved And you get a natural kind of movement Around the co2 that’s being produced It seems very clever doesn’t it um And then the final point i wanted to Mention in particular Was about oak um So this goes back to the sort of Stereotypical Style of australian wines um I think certainly here in the uk maybe In the other countries where you guys Are joining from as well there is this Perception of australian wines as being Sort of big you know ripe fruits High alcohol full-bodied sort of Sunshine In a glass idea with a big lick of oak As well Um and this would apply to the red wines

As well but also to the chardonnay Um where big oaky chardonnays were the Thing a couple of decades ago [Music] Obviously particularly for chardonnay it Can be quite a divisive thing Um it is potentially the big hooky Chardonnays That became a little bit less popular And sort of ushered in the era Of sauvignon blanc um which doesn’t seem To have Left it yet um but this idea that all You know that all australian wines are Big and oaky Is again it’s not really true anymore um So Managing oak in a way that is again Considerate that reflects the style of Wine that reflects the quality of the Wine Is really what producers are looking at These days So that means things like bigger Oak vessels older oak vessels Um playing around with the amounts of Oak that’s being used In chardonnay also playing around with The amount of Malolactic that is that the wine’s going Through So all of these things just kind of Starting to rain it back a bit Like just think a little bit more about

Delicate flavors when it comes to Australia now Um i know it’s maybe not the words the Terms that you’re used to but like Australia’s doing all sorts of wonderful Things So if you are one of those people that’s You know maybe gone oh I’m not sure if i want an australian Wine aren’t they all you know Big and alcoholic no that’s the answer Um i think hopefully i’ve just proved That pretty much Anything is um is available in australia These days Um so certainly um worth Having a look around Um so that really brings me to the end Of everything that i was planning to say And just wanted to mention a few of the Um Resources that i used here to pull this Together um Wines of australia very much the biggest One So they’ve got um their minds of Australia website And then also australian wine discovered Which is their educational resource So if you have any interest in Australian wine at all this is a free Educational resource which covers all The key elements Of australian wine production latest

Stats statistics you can find Um through their websites as well um Just really useful really well presented And um yeah very helpful resource Um otherwise a few other things that are Useful Um i did download james bursby’s book From 1825 On my kindle it’s as i said earlier i Think it was just really impressive Um it kind of starts out with his Account of Um getting to australia um realizing That there was this gap in the market And then how he went about getting rapes From various countries learning how to Make wine Yeah um very very interesting Um james halliday’s website wine Companion Also very useful resource lots of Information on there He’s the kind of um go-to guy when it Comes to australia really Um and then a bit of dances robinson’s Oxford companion as well Which is just the go-to book for um Any wine information really Um so yeah a few different things That might be of use to you there So that brings me to the end of the Presentation really Um if you are um Interested in sharing any uh posts on

Social media There are all of our handles here which You can access Um it’s very nice to see you know tweets And instances and what’s not uh i Believe that up to you And obviously we are uh wct School london is still open for um All classes currently um so whether That’s Fine spirit sarko or anything else You’ve gotten interested in you can find More details on our website So that’s it from me i’m going to end The recording Here