Discover Bordeaux with Lydia Harrison MW

Okay welcome everybody to discover Bordeaux my name is Lydia Harrison I’m a Master of wine as of 2019 and I’m a Full-time educator at the diversity School in London where I teach lots of Different levels but particularly at Diploma level for I will teach Bordeaux As it’s a real passion of mine it’s one Of the first things I tried that really Got me into wine when I was younger it’s Also the region the wine reach and I Visited the most over over a dozen times I’ve kind of lost count over the years But since I began working in wine I used To go to kanopolis expose a really big Fare that kind of the equivalent of Provine and back in the day he’d joined Them in Bordeaux that they used to host By annually I’ve been to that many times I visited lots of different producers Over the years lots of different trips And some with my own W studies as well And and so I loved the region and of the Place and I’m also a Bordeaux certified Educator for the CI VB so I’ve been Twice with them to do their course at Mia called Eva you have to pass their Test and then you’re accredited to teach About the wines of Bordeaux and I just Went last summer as well to do my RIA Credit ation she go back every four Years so a lot of actually some of the Facts and figures that I’ve included in The presentation tonight courtesy of the

CI VB most of it is the most up-to-date Information I could find bearing in mind That obviously we would have had an Another update usually around this time And obviously that hasn’t happened at The moment they would normally come over To the the UK and we’d go through the Facts and figures so some of its 1 2019 Some might be 20 18 but the most recent Figures that I can find to kind of paint A picture of what’s going on in the Region and they have some wonderful Resources you can just the website Bordeaux comm which I’ll show again at The end from the CI VBSS and great Learning information to covering all Sorts of different things on board There okay let’s um let’s get going So just to obviously festival let’s find Out where Bordeaux is and you can see it Here down in southwest France so just Highlight some of the other key regions That you look at missus are on level Three map and this is Bordeaux city here And all of this blue area surrounding it Is the appellation okay so we’ve got a Moderate climate here we’re a little bit Further south in France and Lawton sort Of 45th parallel in terms of latitude And that’s really important because that Enables you to ripen the grape varieties That are key in Bordeaux that will we’ll Look at he also influenced massively by Obviously Atlantic miss Kay here it does

Rain during the summer it’s very much Like the UK and that can give you issues With with mildew and rot in the Vineyards and but like anywhere as well You know the weather from year to year Can be different some years I mean dry Sometimes they’ll have heat spikes but You also have this long summer and again That’s really important they’ve got late Ripening grape varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon that you can then leave the Grapes on the vine and maybe not even Pick until late September October which You can’t do in more inland more Continental climates so the location is Really crucial for the varieties that Are grown and then the stars of wine That are produced so just to highlight That usually they avoid frost here Because you are you know further south It is warmer but there are every so Often every sort of few decades these Fruit vintages where where frost can be Really devastating like in 2017 and Which a lot of vineyards and we’re Devastated by that so you know it like Anywhere it’s not always you know the Stable at summer conditions from year to Year all right I’m going to talk a Little bit and just move my video away About the history obviously this there’s Lots you could you could go on for for Ages but I just sort of highlighted some Of the key things and and I always like

To you to mention this that actually Would o was considered British and British For nearly 300 years so so it’s always An interesting point that was with the The marriage of eleanor of aquitaine To Henry Plantagenet in 1152 and so Actually then that area saying became Under under British rule under the king And there was obviously you know Long-standing history of trade of wines And other things between Bordeaux and And Britain 15th century unfortunately The academia’s recaptured by the French We were at war with the French and then Obviously you have a lot of the Importance of Holland and the Hanseatic Cities and Brittany for a lot of the Main markets and it was the Dutch that Were responsible for draining a lot of The vineyard area in the meadow Particularly that was marshland and Making it therefore viable for the Viticulture and that forms a lot of the Medic medic region that we we see today So the that was really crucial for Enabling a lot more fines to be planted On the lam then you’ve got sort of Atlantic trade and exports becoming more Important and then it was really the 19th century that you really started to See lots of investments in the region ok So you know winemaking technology you Know focusing on quality the 1855

Exhibition all of these sorts of things Started really going at a pace and then Obviously in the 20th century you’ve had The foundation of the irony Oh which is Obviously supports all your origins and Appellation ctrl-a in France you had in 1948 the foundation of the CIB Bing Which is who I’m an accredited tutor for Who represents the whole of the Bordeaux Region and then in 1989 he had the Bordeaux wine school or as it’s called Eventually a quality van and which is in Bordeaux City they have a wonderful bar Actually you can go and taste loads of Different wines there it’s great if you Visits but they also have a school and They do lots of courses for educators For all sorts of people around the world And global weather your sometimes it’s Trade focus like sommelier sometimes and Educators and different courses to you Know teach people about borrowing and Spread the love And then another kind of keep on 1990s This was professor to Purdue and Discovered the the molecules that Natural Roma compounds responsible for That characteristic Roma’s Sauvignon Blanc no sort of boxwood and Characteristics that you get so I mean That’s just a snapshot of some of the Highlights but you know Bordeaux the History is long-standing and also just You know it’s far-reaching from whether

It’s sort of in a professional capacity Research to investment in winemaking to Unit sales or look at the place and Negotiates later to education so every Sort of sphere of the the wine trade in The wine world can be can be seen in Bordeaux Alright now let’s have a look a little Bit more at today and I know they’re Those eager-eyed of you will see the Figure here eleven hundred eleven Thousand hectares is slightly less than Here the diagram is a little bit older This is the latest figure so the the Vineyard size has decreased fractionally I wanted to still include the diagram Just to kind of show you how big the Bordeaux wine region is in comparison to The other you know famous regions of France so you’re looking at over a Hundred ten thousand hectares I mean if The Rhone is about seventy thousand so You know and that’s there’s a lot of Production in your Cote du Rhone so it Just kind of brings it into context a Little bit burgundy Tibor gone you know Need twenty six thousand hectares in Comparison so Bordeaux is an absolute Powerhouse you know it’s the largest Appellation so quality wine region in France all of Bordeaux and its wines are Considered PDO quality which is Protected designation of origin okay and And that’s just you know it’s so

Important for cont for France as a Country not just you know in wine terms Employment jobs the whole infrastructure Around it tourism and you the city Itself so it’s it’s really important I’m In all aspects of wine and and the Economy for France so just really there For you to see you know this Of bodeaux it still looks small Obviously income when you compare it to The whole of the world’s vineyard but we Are talking about around five million Hectoliters of wine and obviously that Can go up and down and I’ve got a chart Later the looks at some of the vintage It’s but this is a huge volume of wine To sound we’re looking all different Qualities or different price points Styles everything so some figures They’re about you know the CI VB have a Huge job to try and represent all these Different states different cooperatives Merchants you know they’re really Representing a huge and diverse and Complex wine region there’s 60 different As 65 so different appellations so these Are what you would see on the label okay If you see just bordeaux appellation Bordeaux controlling that’s a little bit More self-explanatory people have heard Of the city a bordeaux superior that’s The regional but then obviously as you Go into it there’s more precise regions Like santa million over murdoch margo

Etc so there’s 65 different appellations So again you know lots of different Labeling terms for for people to know And understand that these wines are all From the Bordeaux region and all using The signature grapes that were won’t Look at the average property size and This has increased over the last few Years so you know people are Consolidating and you know often Producers might have quite a few you Know own different properties in Different parts of Bordeaux and but That’s the average obviously there are Smaller properties than that there are Substantially bigger but that’s the Average so again you know compared to Other vineyard regions where the average Holding is a lot smaller in size and 5% Is the classified gross so if you like Your top estates and it will talk about Some of those famous names like Neville Barton that already came up tonight your Chateau Margot Phyllis and go this is Only 5% of the vineyard area so it’s Important to remember that Bordeaux is a Really huge and diverse category a lot Of the you know the really famous Expensive wines get a lot of airplay or The ones that people know but really There’s so much in the region Lots of different people and lots of Different wine stars being produced and Then just to show you the kind of split

So a lot of Botto still very important In the domestic market but exports have Certainly been increasing as well Roughly about 44 percent is exported by Volume and they go like that fact 18 Bottles of Bordeaux are sold every Second and worldwide so you know just I Love that thinking someone else out There is also buying a bottle and Drinking it and the same time as I okay And then just yeah a little bit I don’t Want to you know death by figures or PowerPoint but just in case for those That are interested the top markets Which are the same actually for value And volume but just to give you a little Bit of idea about the scale you know off The trade here this is significant in Terms of value and volume and obviously You have some markets where they will Focus more on some of the cheaper ones Sometimes Germany but perhaps is more Sort of the volume and there’s markets Like Hong Kong which are very much in This high high-end fine wine investments And and then the UK which is bit of Everything so just so you can see a Little bit of an idea there five hundred And seventy three million euros and That’s Hong Kong and China and Macau Actually all combined and so we’re this Is you know we’re talking about a really Big and important wine region okay this Is a map also credit from the CIB be

It’s a bit more detailed than some of The ones we show how the diversity Because you can’t just physically we Can’t tell you about every single region But what I really like about this is it Shows you all of the the Appalachians I’m not expecting you to remember them All but you can have a little look and Hopefully see some of your favorites or Some of those names that you might Recognize so example if we say Margo’s Famous here in there medic you’ve got so Turned sweet winding down here said to Me Leon probably one of the better-known ACS over on the right bank but what it Also does is color code them so You can see the ones here with the red Purple dots these are Appalachians only For red wines okay so even if you’re Making a white wine over here and you’re Situated in pork you can only call that Bordeaux Blanc okay or Appalachian Bordeaux controlling so you know there’s Some complexities about what you will See on the label here with this sort of More orangey colored you can see these Are sweet wine Appalachians only a Gabriel do sweet wine so several and Barsac so ten if you see these labels on Your bottle wines they have to be sweet White wines others can be a little bit More diverse for example some of these Lesser known ones let go after they you Can you can have make red wine sweet

Wines and white wines in these Appalachians okay so I like this map Because it really you know spelled it Out to what kind of wine stars are Permitted to use with the different Labeling turns that on to de mer for Example you can see this huge region Here known as between the two seas Because it’s it’s between the two rivers That’s what hundred Amer means is only For white wines so if you’re making red Wine in this fast area that would just Be your basic Bordeaux root nothing more On the label than appellation bordeaux AC appellation bordeaux control a so if You do see these more specific places They are telling you exactly where your Wine is coming from a Bordeaux and that Can relate to a specific star you’ve Obviously got some pink wines as well so Your roses that we’ll talk about but Just wanted to show you that obviously You can study it a little bit more in Your own time but it just shows you I Think you know snapshot the diversity of The wine stars the the number of Appalachians and what is going on in This this amazing region alright and Then just to just to highlight and Because I can’t touch on every single Appellation obviously but just to show You know there has been some regression And some what I would call modernization So because there were so many different

Appellations what they actually did the Coat group was combine them so whereas Previously it was cote de Blois and cote De cardiac and cook the custard on these Wall separates People you know perhaps didn’t Understand exactly where these wines Were located or that they were even in Bordeaux they have actually joined Forces so now they use the term cote de Bordeaux as a collective these five Areas that all on the right bank around I sentiment even if I just click back You can see them all so you’ve got Bly Up here in the North you’ve got caste on Here if you can see just to the east of Sans million Pomeroy okay so all on the Right bank kill Merlot driven stars and Blends in a little but just to show you That there has been some change in the Appalachians they now all can Collectively use the term cote de Bordeaux and still obviously use their Name separately but I think it’s a Really good marketing thing they you Know they can share resources they can Put that as a collective name and There’s often really good value wines And you know better than your basic Bordeaux regional Appalachians and and And areas where people are experimenting And younger generations are setting up Because it’s a little bit more Affordable so there’s some really

Interesting wines to the cat in in the Coat so just an example there of some of The changes that have actually occurred Israel all right now to look obviously At the grape varieties we’ve talked a Little bit about the history and some of The key regions but Bordeaux usually is All about the blend you’re mixing grape Varieties and this is really beneficial Because the grape varieties do things at Different times they’ll ripen a Different points they give you different Flavors different structure so it’s you Know it’s usually seen here that the sum Is greater than the parts and by using More than one variety you can really Make the best wine potentially you know Available to you but Merlot is still Dominant you can see there’s 66 percent Of the black grapes is merlot so this Really is dominant this is going to be Very important in your more entry-level Wine styles so you’re you know Bordeaux AC your regional level wines of Bordeaux Superior and then obviously in those Famous wines of the right bank your Sense million your Pomeroy this is where Merlot Really comes into its own and will be The dominant partner in the blend okay So some of these wines and the right Bank might be 70 80 percent Merlot okay Then obviously you have Cabernet Sauvignon I won’t go into too much

Detail all these grapes we had I did a Separate Seminole and Cabernet Sauvignon If you want to delve into the Characteristics of that variety but this Is your will a tripe in the thick skins So it gives lots of black fruits aroma High tannins and acid so much more Structured than merlot this is 22% and This will be more dominant on some of Those left bank comings so in the meddle In places like koryaks Angelia perfectly On United Center and Cabernet Franc okay So like a kind of little brother to Cabernet Sauvignon also some of these Characteristics which can be blended in With both Cabernet and Merlot but again Particularly on the right back is Santa Milian and palo this is the great that Will provide the structure and the Blending opportunities merlot i didn’t Talk about this is usually a little bit Rounded which is why it can just be by Itself for your more basic wines early Ripening a little bit softer medium acid And tannin but equally obviously you can Get amazingly concentrated and complex Wines as well and this is this is this Stuffing really it gives more alcohol And body to the wines more sort of plum Fruit character red and black fruits That’s Merlot and then just only a small Percent but something that again it can Be really important just having a little Bit of these varieties in the mix in the

Blend can just add some other Characteristics you’ve got Petit Verdot It likes the warmth so lonely’ tends to Ripen in there in the hotter years but As global warming is happening as the Vineyards are on average getting warmer Year on year this is starting to be Planted a little bit more it’s a late Right now or give tannin an acid Structure to the wines Malbec is well Okay obviously you’re not too far from Cowell in Bordeaux which is the the French region for Malbec and there are Some vineyards that still have a little Portion of Malbec in there and Carmenere As well so all of these liking All the conditions will be planted on The wall muscles and adding a little bit Of structure and color to your to your Wines and then you can see the makeup of The whites is a little more even here Between Seminole and Sauvignon Blanc and Some wines especially some of the kind Of fresh dry white wines will be more Based on so if you’re wrong especially If your youthful drinking cuz everyone Loves that really fruity type of white Wine aromatics that floral green fruit Citrus fruits etc and Semyon is much More important for the sweet wines of The region it’s thin-skinned It’s susceptible to botrytis the the Rock that will shrivel up your grapes And raising them so you have lots of

Concentrated sugar and make them into Sweet wines but it also will provide an Important part of some of your dry Whites as well and Semyon gives body and Texture to the wines and then you’ve got A little bit of Moscato which is an Aromatic white grapes quite floral and Grape een can add a little bit of Perfume and then a few you know bits and Bobs that they’re still permitted as Well so that is the main grape varieties But I will touch on later as well a few That are hopefully also going to be Authorized ok so let me just let’s have A look at some of the the wine styles And this is one of the reason we reason Sorry why I love Bordeaux is you just Have everything in one region you know You could start your meal with a glass Of creme on my sparkling wine you could Then have a rose a could then have a dry Write different stars you could have all The different Reds you wanted obviously I’d be with a group of friends not Drinking this much by myself and then You can finish on ninis and the world Class dessert wine so you just got an Amazing stylistic diversity the bulk is Red it really is predominately a red Wine region now this has fallen a little Bit okay you have seen an increase in Rose a production in some whites and Criminal in the last few years so red is Now 85% of the region but again coming

In all different styles from easy Drinking inexpensive stars to you know Amazingly complex and age where are the Reds and you can see over half off that Red production is is still just your Sort of more everyday region or never Once so where you would just see Bordeaux or Bordeaux superior on the Label coming from any of the vineyards Blended you know some big brand Production here usually Merlot LEDs you Know soft to start easier drinking rent Ones okay and then you’ve got your more Specific appellation so the Murdoch and The grab on the left bank which might Say the Murdoch or more specific Appalachians within that such as px and Julia okay so coming up to about twenty Percent you have the coat which we Talked about those sort of collaboration Of areas on the right bank or Merlot Leads and then you’ve got sense when You’re palma on Fonseca also on the Right back right bank as well and then You’ve got your rows a so smaller in Terms of obviously the whole production But it is an area that is popular you Know more people have been making roses With the popularity of roses and this Includes Bordeaux Rose a which is its Own appellation and also a category Called Clarett which is actually where They think you know the term carrot Comes from which is what the British

Call red wine from Bordeaux and this is Very deeply colored rose a and which I Love it has real flavor and character It’s great with food and you don’t see As widely available in the UK because Paler roses are sometimes on trend but And if you do see it I think it’s it’s Really interesting it’s a really sort of Dark colored rose a so it almost looks Like a pale red wine and then you’ve got Your dry whites and we’ll talk about Some of the diversity of stars that you Get they’re sweet wines obviously only Small percent because you think you know You’re making wines from these tiny Shriveled grapes you’re not going to Have huge volumes but still an important Part of production and crema As well although it’s only small this is Again something that sparkling wine is Booming and you can get crema which is Traditional method sparkling wines They’re made exactly in the same way as Champagne but just coming from Bordeaux So Kremlin de Bordeaux All right and this is the picture of me Having a tasting actually as part of my Enzyme leads 2015’s at Chateaubriand We’re trying a mission a real and a real And we were trying their whites and reds And I was just in my element at this Moment I am it’s a very very happy Picture for me okay let me go back to Some of the Appalachians I haven’t done

Quite as detailed a map because Obviously can be a bit overwhelming but These are some of the key Appalachians That we talk about a level-3 and and you Know some of the bigger in terms of Volumes and obviously I have to mention With Bordeaux I’ve mentioned it a little Bit already but we talked about left Bank and right bank and that’s because The left bank is basically all the Vineyards here So the Medoc this purple region going Down into pest that you’re on your graph And that full on the left-hand side of This your industry and the caramel River Which which goes into join there’s your Industry and that’s because of the soil And soil is crucial in Bordeaux to Determining which of the grape varieties New plants okay and here you get a lot Of gravel this was the area the meadow And I was saying the Dutch drains I’ve Made it viable for viticulture and you Can still see some of those and drainage Channels in the meadow We’ve got this lovely gravelly source it Heats up it retains warmth it drains the Rain away which does happen during the Summer and during the ripening of your Grapes and so Cabernet Sauvignon and Will suit this more gravelly sort so you Get a lot more Cabernet Sauvignon Planted here on the left bank in the Meadow and the pests that yunyoung Drive

Region graph actually meaning gravel and So the wines he will obviously tend to Not always dominated by but will have a Much higher proportion of Cabernet Sauvignon in the blend so if they tend To have more acid in tannin and when You’re tasting and more black fruits Some of those herbaceous elements that We consider with Cabernet Sauvignon that Lovely green bell pepper character as Well obviously you can still blend in Merlot and Cabernet Franc and your bits Of Malbec etc but that’s why the Location in Bordeaux is paramount Because it will the so type you have Will determine what grey varieties you Have That will determine your blend and the Star the ultimate you know taste and Style of the wine if you go over to the Right bank so this is where the coats Are located that we talked about cents And Millian Pomeroy and obviously some Other areas there’s a little clay soil Clay and limestone and clay as damper Limestone is white it therefore reflects Heat no it’s cooler and is therefore Suited more to your earlier opening Merlot and you will pick Merlot often You know to two weeks or so before Cabernet Sauvignon so the wines coming From the right bang which are dominated More by Merlot with maybe some Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Franc blended into

Supports will usually be more body Usually about a degree more in alcohol So percent more if you’re comparing the Same vintages and rounder more plum Fruit more red fruit characters so Different in star so even within the red Wines you know there really is a Bordeaux for everyone because there’s so Many different different styles Available and as I said before the entre De mer is where a lot of if you are Growing Merlot and Cabernet he’s here This will be if someone could please Stop writing on my screen thank you and That is where and I didn’t add and that Is where you will get a lot of the wine Just going into your Bordeaux AC Reds Etc so I’m focusing on red wines at the Moment I will come on to whites and Sweets but as we saw 85 percent of your Region is is red so that’s what I’m Focusing on at the moment and I put a Little fact here on the left just to Show you I mean how important the the Rivers and the jaundiced areas this is 12 kilometers wide here at the mouth It’s a huge river that obviously tempers The climate it brings moisture humidity It’s it’s really important in the region Obviously and and allowing these these Grape varieties to ripen and then Obviously you’ve got the different Styles so I could spend all night just Talking about the different Appalachians

And but as they’re you know as their Overview obviously we talked about the Murdoch and the Oh If these you have these Appalachians and Labor these are more specific areas so They’ll have stricter rules things like Lower yields you know better Whiteness in your grapes smaller Quantities of grapes being produced from That that vineyard should give you more Concentration therefore the wine can Have more okjung or barrel aging and be More complex and then if you go even Smaller these really precise Appalachians known as communes like sad Step or yak san giulio Margaux now this Is like saying if you’re in London just Saying I’m particularly from kender Stan Where I live for example let’s say let’s Put it on the map you know you’re being Much more precise about where your won’t It originates from rather than saying Just London which is a vast area and They again will have stricter rules and Regulations so you know a lot of your Top grapes coming from here really Quality focused production lots of our Caging and wines that are really really Aged where they the same down in Pesa Union and the graph and these are all Cabernet Sauvignon led wines and if it’s Not always dominant up in the upper Reaches of the Medoc obviously you are Closer so the Atlantic it is wetter and

Merlot can be more dominant and but Especially as you can start to come in Learn and go south and where you have More gravel outcrops you’re going to Find more Cabernet Sauvignon and Especially down in Pesa again again a Little bit further south a little bit More sheltered in lands these wines can Be a little bit riper than those up in The north okay so even on the on the Same banks you’re going to have Variances from Appalachians appellation And and slight meaning micro climates it Is a large area below so we can Generalize about a particular vintage But remember you know even localized Conditions might be different from up in The middle to down here to across over In San Simeon so don’t always you know Just right off a vintage or think that All wines are great from one year Because you’re going to have differences In the different areas and also remember White wines you’re going to pick earlier Than your black grapes that take longer To open so what might not be a great Year for your white wines would be Really good for reds I’ll vice-versa anyway sidetracked a Little bit there and then if you go over To the right bank obviously you’re much More sort of Merlot led wine so santa Million Pomerol these wines typically Maybe seventy eighty percent or so

Merlot with with other obviously great Bright ease in the blend here as well Right I can’t keep up I’m gonna have to Come to the questions at the end if you Could type them in again in other words I just lose my train of thought But yeah so I highlighted some of the Appalachians there and obviously if You’re really a big fan you can get into The intricacies of the difference Between stare fascism Argo and son stuff Is known as the most kind of tannic Structured of the the wines of the left Bank Margot can be quite floor a little Bit more kind of perfumed and star That’s the beauty of water you can taste Different areas different producers and Just experiment with with what you like And yes responded so obviously in can’t About every single vineyard or every Single winery but one of the key things In Bordeaux is is relatively flat okay It’s a big area but compared to some of The famous vineyard reasons of the world We see these really steep slopes and Amazing sort of vertical vineyards of Moose and Bordeaux is relatively flat This isn’t a picture I took at shutter Smith or Lafitte in Castagna a wonderful Estate and you can see there the Rosa Finds you know it’s there are little Undulations a little bit more so in Saint-emilion In the meadow there’s on your high point

Of about forty meters above sea level This is not a huge so what makes the Difference here between your basic Bordeaux you’re just sort of inexpensive Easy drinking styles and some of your Top in a class gross or top top ones and One thing is is the soil and then one Thing is also density and yield from That’s okay so you can see here how Closely these vines are planted together So they’re competing for the resources They’re competing for the water and so The nutrients the The sunlights and you would need to keep The yield so the amount of grapes per Vine loan in order to get sufficient Brightness in this way so the lower the Yield here you’re going to get better Quality and that’s why it’s so important If you had you know higher yield the Grapes would have less flavor Concentration be a little bit less right That would be going into more of your Sort of regional levels so density of Plantings so type yield and what you do In the vineyard you know canopy Management enabling the vine to ripen The fruit load that it has that year Making sure the grapes are healthy all Of these things become really really Important because you haven’t got a Natural slope that will kind of easily Just give you that rightness or that Warm for that drainage there’s a

Different kind of game here and then Obviously you’ve got the human input in The winemaking so choosing fermentation Temperature all these sorts of decisions What extraction you want to do to get The color and the tannins from the skins Of your black grapes and this is a Picture of the bear room at Chateau Mouton Rothschild which actually was Released today they just released their 2018-2019 on promoters every timely and You can see I mean so many new oak Boughs here so this is obviously in These top estates going to give you lots Of flavor and lots of complexity to the Wines and soften the red wines as they Age as well so there’s so many I haven’t Got time to go into all the details of Rude to co-chair winemaking but and just To highlight a few of the key things They’re in Bordeaux and obviously yes With you know better quality Reds oak The amount of time and oak is a key Factor of the style and then that Obviously enables the development as Well so some thyme and oak and then also In bottle and the vase slow oxidation And one of the things I love about Bordeaux wines is their ability to age And I’ve been fortunate enough to try Some sort of older vintages this was and As you can see when I visited Chateau Smith and Lafitte and they have almost a Sort of museum

Room of vintages you can go back a lot Longer than that as well and these wines Are still alive and the top producers You know they evolve all this lovely Tertiary complexity to things Aromas like cigar box leather cedar and Tobacco on the left bank they still Retain that element of herbaceousness But it almost become sort of like dried Blackcurrant leaves and and green bell Pepper on the right bank maybe with Merlot more sort of chocolates and Spices and dried fruits and prunes and Raisins so much complexity but the best Wines you know can really live for Decades and that’s great you’ve got the Investments and you’ve also got you can Buy wines you can keep them you can try Them at different stages as well I love A really a good mature Bordeaux and you Don’t have to wait decades as well That’s the beauty of it you hand of Years that are sort of earlier maturing When there’s the grapes are a little Less concentrated and I’m really really Approached button style as well I’m just A little bit of another Tart but this is just to show you Obviously you do have fluctuations in Here on you know this is some of the Most recent vintages and added in there The 2019 harvest Unfortunately usually the years that are Really rated so the vintages everyone

Talks about art you know 2009 2005 2015-2016 some great years you can see Are actually big in production as well And that’s because if you have good Conditions you know if it’s drier if It’s sunny it’s warmer you’ve got better Chances of ripening your fruit less work To do you can you know the vine can Ripen a slightly larger crop still Within the yield limits and therefore Usually that’s the you know the benefit Is you get quantity and quality some Years where you can see there are back Additions like 2013 you have a smaller Vintage 2017 it’s not a you know bad Vintage in terms of flavor it’s just They had a lot of frost which really Wiped out some some vineyards and Equally I would say that you know people Have talked about great vintages or more Favourable years but these days with the With the work that you can do in the Vineyards and I wouldn’t say this for Instance there’s vintages that perhaps Are underappreciated or seen as lesser Or known as age worthy but can still Provide great value for money and really Enjoyable drinking you know some of the 2011 and 2012 and that you can get in Restaurants are drinking beautifully at The moment you know softer starred Earlier maturing vintages and then You’ve got the you know their interest Like 2010 which is amazing vintage which

Will be able to age 10 20 30 years no Problem okay so just to show you Obviously this as well as having all the Different areas you’ve also got the Different conditions year and year and This this is a very complex thing as Well as supply and demand and Differences in conditions and demand 2019 was it was fairly good sort of Nearly at that sort of average of about Five million hectoliters overall Production is going down slightly over The last decade or so and but yet around That kind of five million hectoliters ah And I actually love some of the more Classically styled what a vintage things Like 2014 2008 I’m often went in there There’s a hottest years of summer years A really ripe fruits then everyone Really and raves about the wines but I I Actually sometimes like those those Years like 2014 of saved by what we call An Indian summer the lovely September October weather and they still have Lovely bright acid and freshness and What I would see is a kind of classic Bordeaux vintage so there really is Something for everyone if you like you Know the warmer Viper stars the more Delicate stars this such such diversity Across the years as well as the Appalachians and producers rights moving On me obviously then as well as of the Region ISM way you are you have your

Classification system so you often see Two things on a label of borrowing or Three or well lots of different things But the producer name okay whereabouts It’s fun so on the label here you’ve got San Juliet one of my favorite Applications of the the less left bank Okay so telling you that specifically From that tiny commune that was Within the home a dock if you remember So we’re talking about a Cabernet Sauvignon led wine here but then you Will also see if it’s in a region that Has a classification system and if it Qualifies a quality status basically so In the Murdoch region they have a couple Of different ones but the most Long-standing was the 1855 Classification okay and that’s like a Private club okay yeah if you made it in In 1855 You can still see these terms on the Label one quick last thing a quick Lesson from 1855 and that means like a Classed growth so you know it’s like Being your your football club being in The top league Okay you’re saying yeah this produce That is great and they are in this club And that one hasn’t changed it’s what we Call a static classification okay so and If you’re part of it you can put that Status on your label if you didn’t quite Make it into the crew class a in the

Middle they also have a tier which is Called crew bushwah and again this is Sort of for those quality produces the Dink white meat you know the class a Status but it enables new entrants so This is something that actually is Revised it used to be every year you had To submit your wines so it’s a little Bit more up to date in terms of Representing the particular vintage but They’re just gonna change that actually As of 20 to 20 and every five years They’ll be reviewed so you submit your Wines from the last few vintages and if You’re given approval you can put the Term crew bourgeois on the label so it’s Like you know if you see that on a label It’s a quality status it’s a good you Know people can feel confident in buying Those wines good quality wines coming From the medic and then crew artisan is A small producer so this is a Classification for small family-owned Producers that do everything himself so In the vineyards the marketing the whole The whole company as well so you can see That on labels from the medic in the Graph they also followed suit and in 20th century and 1950s and also use the Crew classic so again if you see crew Class A from pests actually on the graph You can also know that that’s a Quality producer coming from that region So you know these are these are times

That you can look for and give me some Confidence in what you’re purchasing What’s interesting about the grub is It’s not just for red wines like it is In the medic with your 1855 Classification so it can be for whites And Red’s and you know the graph do you Have some of the lovely dry white wines Of Bordeaux that that I’m a big fan of Right and then a little bit more Complicated on the right bank so in Santa Mina’s a little bit different Because it’s linked to the appellation Okay so you have just no more Santa Millio then you have Santa meal Grand Cru population control so you can See here this is Santa me on concrete But this then also has a high level so You then have Grand Cru classic which is A level above premier grand capacity and Premier Guang classic so this is clear Hierarchy you can climb up the ladder You’ve only got a few producers right at The top a premier Grand Cru classic a But it’s motivational so you know every 10 years they review it and you can go Up or down or stay the same that’s Basically as a summary of that it can Get quite complex but again you see Grand Cru but particularly Gwangju Classics always look for the classic I Think if you’re looking on the left bank In the right bank that is where you Start to get you know that real degree

Of quality and especially premier Concrete classic I said Palmas just you Know that just the different regions Liked are their own laws and regulations And I like Pawar because it’s just a Little bit more straightforward there’s No classification so you’d see palm roll On the label telling you it’s from that Particular area you’d see the particular Producer name and that’s it you can make Up your own mind or you know have a look At the prices to kind of work out who You thinks is the best quality ok so Just an insight obviously there’s quite A bit of detail haven’t got time to go Into everything but it gives you an idea Of you know some of the hierarchies in In the different places All right a little bit about the white Wines because I said this is an area That sometimes a little bit overlooked They do some great white wines and in Bordeaux and you’ve got everything from Just you know easy drinking so if it Says Bordeaux Blanc or entree de mer These are usually just Sauvignon Blanc Lead blends which are really fresh Fruity youthful wine so uh notes and They’ll be fermented in stainless steel Or concrete usually just really vibrant Fresh fruity white wines and equally on The grave and per second yeah and they Have a tendency to oak the white wines And I love this style where you tend to

Get Sauvignon Blanc but also blended With Semyon it’ll be matured in new French oak barrels good always hundreds A new bur oak barrels it gives it this Sort of toasty lovely smoky toasty Character and you are in the paragraph So maybe more gravel sauce as well but Riper lower yields that gives these Wines a little bit more body and then They can bottle age as well and you get These lovely nutty honey characters with Time so you know I think I’m everyone Perhaps thinks about burgundy for white Wines and I’m a big shot and a fan as Well but I do love some of these these White wines from Bordeaux just for Different occasions you know race is Easy drinking fresh fruity wine for a Hot summer’s day or certain types of Food and then you’ve got these sort of Richer fuller out styles as well Perfect for bottle aging perfect with With other cuisine and so just to give You an idea there of this you know quite A few Appalachians but I’ve long contra De Mer the most important you can see There making up the kind of bulb but There’s there are white wines producing Some of the others like like blowing the Cote de Bordeaux as well and then Obviously I couldn’t talk about Bordeaux Without talking about the really famous Sweet wines and if you love Sauternes Barsac these are probably the most

Famous but there’s actually all these Other Appalachians again they’re often Underrepresented and unknown and can be Great value for money and three wines in Bordeaux are considered in more than 45 Grams per litre often a lot more A lot of Saturn will have about 130 Grams per liter of sugar so you know Sweet white wines and this is how They’re made a little snapshot here Botrytis that lists my own little tubby Thumb they’re holding this bunch of Grapes and you can see how it’s you know Shriveling up the grapes on their own Not all at the same rate some stomach Fairly healthy but this is coming from Botrytis and it’ll be at the end of the Season once the grapes are ripe and it Affects the grapes and shrivels them and That concentrates the sugar but it also Concentrates the aroma flavor of these These grapes so you get this really Intense really ripe fruits dried fruits Things like try an apricot orange Marmalade and then as if that wasn’t Enough tendency particularly in some of The communes and so tend to have some Good ageing and maturation as well so to Add secondary vanilla and spice flavors To the wines as well but as I said I Mean look outside you’ve got so tone and Barsac incredible but there’s also all These others that often people aren’t You know really aware of loopy a caddy

Acts are amazing sweet wine produces and You don’t have to just have sweet wine With dessert you know can work with Savory things very well and there’s all Sorts of different recommendations for Food and wine pairings on the Bordeaux Website if you want to be more Adventurous or even some of the Semi-sweet styles as well so something With the touch of sweetness really good For the summer when it’s hot perhaps you Just you know it’s got a little bit of Sweetness or is something like a fruit Pudding like Bordeaux blue so it’s the Sweet but it’s not a sweet it’s kind of Semi sweet stuff okay and then I’ve Wanted to finish off just talking a Little bit about some of the things that Quite unique to borrow and some of the Things that are going on at the moment In the region so the trade structure Which is obviously quite interesting Because you’ve got such a huge region so Many different producers there’s always Been a big presence of negocios which Companies that will buy wines from the Multitude of producers sometimes major And then sell it on to different Markets to different importers Distributors etc so they act as the kind Of in-between between the producers and The markets and that although it’s Adding obviously another person onto the Chain and it can be really beneficial

Because there’s just so many Bordeaux is So huge and it enables buyers to go to One place to get a whole range of wines As well the Laplace is the way of Selling Bordeaux wine traditionally Which is where all these negotiations Form and it’s the marketplace for it for These wines and and these days actually You can have wines from outside the Bordeaux selling through the plus Because you have this ready-made Distribution network that will divide Your allocations up and and and market Your wines globally so rather than the Individual producer or Chateau this is a Shuttered piece your bow on here and Rather than you know them having to to Make their wine and divide it and sell It and market it they can just sell it To the place and negotiates and they Just send the wine off around all the Corners of the world so it’s a really Interesting system I mentioned here just Because we are in mid-swing of Bordeaux 920 2019 on primer which is the future Sells and literally people buying wine It’s still in the Chateau it’s still Aging in the barrel but people are Saying right I want a case of that when It’s released and you know next next Year late late next year and just to Give you an idea of the price this was The current price of shutting the feet For a six-pack on release a couple of

Days ago so this is some of your Substantial obviously the first growth The top ranking in your 1855 Classification from quick and just to Show you obviously this can be a small Part of the Bordeaux market but Incredibly profitable and important in Terms of turnover so it’s a you know It’s an interesting way of selling the Wines or some of the wines before Release but also just to reflect the Current climate obviously it’s still a Very pricey aya Chateau there are others No not as expensive but these are 15 Percent less 2018 someone’s of releasing 25% or so Because obviously the current economic Climate and Crona Bo’s so if you did Want to invest some wine you know invest In wine there ask them there are some Deals to be had 2019 was it a good Quality vintage and the prices have come Down to reflect the the current climate And then lastly so I won’t go through All of this but I just wanted touched And some of the things that are going on In the region there’s so much to see and Do tourism if you haven’t been to Bordeaux go as I said you have the Accord you’ve an amazing tastings There’s so many wine tools you know Packages that you can go on and the city Divan that opened in 2016 this Incredible wineries it’s the museum

That’s it’s now had over 1.5 million Visitors since it opened huge you know And learning space and mazing amazing Displays right here this is a picture From one of the vineyards I visited in Their entre de mer and you can stay this Is like a little cabin in the vineyards And really nicely done that was made out Of a wine back you know so there’s some Amazing creative and inventive things Going on in the region because I want to Just want to know and it’s very on topic At the moment in the environment and Often people think Oh Bordeaux can’t be Organic because it’s wetter but there Are there are organic there are lots of Biodynamic produces and some High-profile ones like ponte canning for Example and there’s a real you know the Creb invest a lot of money into research And promoting it and it’s you know part Of in the region in appellation so 65 Percent of vineya now some have some Sort of environmental certification and There’s there’s lots of different ones With different approaches but all you Know looking at improving ultimately the Conditions and the environment hve is Something you might see on some Bordeaux Labels it’s oat oat Valley environment Environment and excuse my terrible French but basically high Valley high Environmental value so this is a A certification that does things on like

Crop protection fertilizations are Looking at the health of your vineyard Basically and as another example sent to Me Leon there and they to try and Incentivize producers to you know really Consider the environments and progress And looking to always do better by 2023 If anyone like she wants to use the AOC Cents minimum which obviously you get More for your wines rather than just Being Bordeaux and they have to have Some sort of environmental certification So this is really being inbuilt into the Wine production and the industry in Bordeaux is sustainability in looking After the environment 23 kilometres of Hedges planted in 2018 so looking after Different wildlife and biodiversity as Well and white roses increment something That has been growing it’s still at a You know small percentage of the whole But things that they are you know Offering different wine stars you have Got Rosie’s sparkling wines and whites As well so you’ve really got the whole Range and this I mentioned a little bit Earlier that also they are adapting Sometimes but I was seen as very Traditional region it is it has a you Know long-standing heritage and I I love And the history of the region and some Of the traditional wine styles but that Doesn’t mean that they don’t adapt and Innovates and this is something that

Hopefully if it if approved they will be Allowing some other grape varieties into Bordeaux in Bordeaux superior to allow For climate change so great varieties That retain acidity late ripening Because it has been proven that you know The average vintage it’s getting warmer So this will enable producers to adapt So you’ve got things like Alvar in yo The Portuguese grape variety to begin us Nellore so Marcella which is Cabernet Sauvignon times Grenache so you know Suited later openings heat resistant Grape varieties so looking towards the Future as well packaging I always say That in there obviously a lot of the Wines are still traditional but you can Find Bordeaux now and also watching Apaches blaster is going packing box Cans you know they are being quite Inventive Islam and also And a bordo app just if you’re Interested you can get from the CIB B And there’s so much information on there As a learning tool as well all right so I knew I would almost say run there’s a Lot of information this is just to show You very briefly this has been some Consolidation in the region as well Because obviously it is a large area so People are investing from outside other Producers are buying up you know Different chateaux so that you have Overall and the number of producers is

Falling and the area that they own has Husband up over the last few decades and To make use of sort of economies of Scale as well and then I just don’t need To summarize you know why do people up When I why do I love Bordeaux as I’ve Kind of commented on the Stars available You’ve got everything from sparkling dry Whites sweet white semi-sweet Rosalie’s Deeper roses claret Reds of all Different quality prices this just Really is something for everyone Something for every different occasion And as I said from just really Affordable everyday supermarket prices To top top premium investment if you’re In that sphere cuisine wines you know And especially the Reds I love Bordeaux and food it’s just so You know it’s so cuisine friendly and You can have so many different matches And different foods to play with the age Ability as I said I love some of those Terry mature flavor characteristics and The fact that he can aged for decades And you can open that really special Bottle and taste it the availability Because and there is so much reproduce You can find water in a lot of different Countries a lot of different markets you Know it’s not this sort of exclusive Club that you can’t find so then you can Find these good value producers look you Know in the coat look and these other

Areas as well and there’s always lots of Different things available and visit the Region you know this is beautiful this Is one of the properties in Margaux it’s Just you know there’s so much going on In the region it’s you’ve got our Kachelle Bay for oysters not that far Away you can do boat trips down She runs amazing restaurants you know Great history summer meeting buildings And they’ve really done a lot of work Along there’s iran’s in the river and It’s a stunning area to visit so you Know visit just a few more of webinars That we have coming up over the next few Weeks and the things obvious you can Find them all on our website so please Have a look at the tastings and events If you want to know anything more and Obviously there’s all our the school Details should you need anything my own Personal Instagram there have you once Said to get in touch but say yes sorry If I a slowly over an I know and there’s So much tip web below hopefully you came Across this so much to talk about but Show us answer any of your questions now If you want to just read put them in the Chat please so that I can have a look at Them I shall I shall do that thank you For joining