Variety in Focus: Cabernet Sauvignon with Lydia Harrison MW

Okay so welcome everybody to Verizon Focus Cabernet Sauvignon with me Lydia Harrison MW I’m a full-time educator at WCTC school In London and while the school is unable To be open due to the coronavirus we Thought we’d do some webinars to keep us Entertained to hopefully keep you Entertained to keep sharing our passion And knowledge of wine spirits sake and And so yes I am a big Cabernet Sauvignon Fan I know I said that last time when I Did Chardonnay but equally I do love Cabernet Sauvignon so that’s what I’m Going to look at tonight the history of The grape some of its key Characteristics and I can’t obviously Look at every single Cabernet Sauvignon Region or wine unfortunately I’m sorry It’s just not enough time but I will Take you through some of my favorites And also importantly three places that I’ve been to I always think it’s best And you can talk sort of most Passionately and you’re most connected With the places that you visited so That’s where I chose the regions that I’ve been to that I’ve had first-hand Experience with and also really enjoy Their wine styles importantly and and Contrasting wine styles as well to Discuss this evening so sorry if your Favorite Cabernet Sauvignon region or Producer isn’t mentioned but I’ll try

And cover quite a lot then obviously Touch on quite a few areas okay let’s go To the next slide so just to start Obviously with a little bit of Background this that is the in the Picture there you have shuttered decent Which is in Margaux I took that myself On one of my many visits to Bordeaux and I just think it looks spectacular and Very inviting and so Cabernet Sauvignon It was actually predated by Cabernet Franc in Bordeaux which I think’s Interesting a lot of people would think More about Cabernet Sauvignon from Bordeaux but how many thought was Actually more dominant there And that’s because actually Cabernet Franc is one of the parents of Cabernet Sauvignon so that’s not surprising in That respect so it wasn’t really till The end of the 18th century that Cabernet Sauvignon starts to gain favour In Bordeaux and then obviously from its Homeland in borrow it then begins to Spread to new world regions and to rest Of France to lots of different countries It’s amazing how many countries are Showing Cabernet Sauvignon So I noted a few kind of important Things this isn’t necessarily in Chronological order I don’t know the Dates of when it was permitted in some Of the other regions but I’ve put a few Notes notable and historical moments in

There for the grape you had the judgment Of Paris in 1976 this famous wine Tasting that took place in Paris where Stag’s Leap wine cellars a Californian Napa cabernet sauvignon beet some famous There was other Cabernet Sauvignon wines Noticeably some of your first-growth Bordeaux So really sort of monumental tasting Held by Stephen Sperry with really Credible wine judges and it came out on Top and this I think really changed People’s perceptions of new world’s wine Producing regions and that massively per Mean Napa on the map and that’s why We’re going to look at Napa a little bit Later on and they also just showed you Know wasn’t just below that could do Great Cabernet wines and I completely Agree I’m going to visit a couple of Different new our region’s tonight but Obviously there’s so many other Countries and places making top quality Wines from this grape variety or blends Of it so yeah the 1980s 1990s really Sees plantings going going wild Throughout the new world oversee in the State South America Australia you know New Zealand it’s really far-flung I but Also throughout France and Europe and Places in Spain Italy that start to Increase their plantings of this grape Variety and ends That’s this is just a very small example

Of some of the you know the areas where It is now permitted that you wouldn’t Necessarily associate it with as the Classical traditional grape of the Region there’s many more but I just Wanted to showcase a few so for example In Chianti it is now permitted as a Small part of the blend Bowl Gris is the The DRC that they created basically in Italy as a response to this Super Tuscan Movement where they started you know Going outside of the traditional rates And using grapes other than standard AC And using grape varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon and making exceptional wine so They had to then create these do seize To to no accommodate wines from this Variety and then rebelled adhirata in Spain again only as a small part of the Blown but it is permitted so it just Highlights the fact that this grape Variety has really gone global and lots Of different countries and regions Somewhere it’s dominant and really is The mainstay in others where where Provides a supporting moment as well as A blending partner to some of this you Know traditional grapes and then you Have the Berlin tasting so this was Basically Chile’s equivalent to the Judgment of Paris so again some amazing Wines being made in Chile some Top-quality age where the examples that I will mention a little bit later and

The Berlin tasting put those on the map And sort of maybe perhaps didn’t put Them on this level poor people’s Perceptions take a while to change but It really elevated the status of Chilean Wines and and demonstrated that you know The world’s experts are tasting blind And think that yeah Sarah and then Vinay Did chat over NATO Chadwick actually Came out first and Senna Both top wines of Erasmus I mean Senna Came out in second place in this Judgement again beating some of the First Grayson Bordeaux like Chateau Margaux etc then it really just shows That if you know the the experts can get Fooled by these amazing wines and put Them best not fooled but they didn’t Know what they were and rate them best In quality than they really are up there With the best so that really kind of put Chile And I’m going to talk about Chile later And because I just went there on my First MW trip back in November and got To taste some of these incredible wines And see it firsthand it was my first Ever time to visit Chile so I thought I Have to have to mention it there’s also Incredible plantings in China as well as A more more recent development Development I’m no expert on Chinese Wines or plantings but a lot of grape Varieties have been planted there

Recently Cabernet Sauvignon is one That’s incredibly popular for Consumption and also in the vineyards There as well and I think we’ll start to See more wines There’s one from LVMH good how are you I’m probably not pronouncing that Correctly it’s a o y un made from a Blend of Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Franc so I just wanted to highlight you Know a few of the places and how widely Spread this grape variety is it is now The most widely planted black grape Variety in the world for wine okay with 341 thousand hectares of the the last Liquors there are every fingers from 2015 so this is now the most widely Planted black rate and it wasn’t always But it has now reached pole position so We’re going to have a look at some of Those key regions for it okay it’s that Lovely shuttered Issa as well doesn’t it Just make you want to go to Bordeaux Right sometimes computers a little bit Slow so next up pepper you can see my Slide on the characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon and as I mentioned earlier It’s actually the progeny of Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc so these are The two parents and they just naturally Cross fertilized in the vineyard it’s Believed in Bordeaux when they were both Planted and created Cabernet Sauvignon See how many so none is there baby

Though I like to think of it as perhaps The sort of child that you know grows Taller than the parents because if you Think of Cabernet Sauvignon you tend to Think of it as bigger and sort of even More structured than Cabernet Franc so You imagine that kind of child that’s Now taller than the mum and dad and some Bigger and Stocking but it obviously Also has similar flavors characteristics And that you would attribute to Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc are found in Cabernet Sauvignon so you can sort of See its lineage it’s a really small Berry and this picture here on the slide Is Cabernet Sauvignon sometimes we just Use random pictures of grapes but I can Assure you hear that this picture is Cabernet Sauvignon and you can see it’s A really sort of tiny compact build Great berry and it’s almost bluey in Color and it’s thick-skinned and this is Good because it generally gives it good Disease resistance but also that thick Skin is going to give a lot of color and A lot of talents to your wine this is a Highly phenolic grape variety so it Gives a lot of structure a lot of Backbone color tannins and also acidity Usually as well as depending on the Climate and the the level of acidity It’s late ripening okay so when we think About those places and everyone’s Mentioned loads of places where you’re

Drinking Cabernet Sauvignon from this Evening they will have to have at least As a minimum amount of warmth in order To ripen this grape variety okay there’s Nothing worse than when it’s not quite Ripe and it’s gonna taste a bit of Stringent Acid in tannin and you haven’t got the Kind of fruit ripeness to to make the Wine taste lovely and delicious so it You know in in France it’s the more Southerly areas like Bordeaux we go to California sunshine is not an issue you Know Australia South Africa needs a Warmer climate regions where Cabernet Sauvignon can really thrive and you will Pick it late so buds late and then it Ripens late so maybe well into sort of Late September October in Bordeaux and Usually a good couple of weeks Harvesting after you picked some of your Other grape varieties like Merlot okay So you need patience but that’s a good Thing sometimes let it ripen slowly it Gives you time to build up all the Flavors and the aromatics Wow in this grade its vigorous so As we saw a Chardonnay sometimes the Most popular grape varieties and ones That will grow well okay as a grape Grower you need to sort of make your Life a little bit easier and so Obviously the best quality wines will Will try and restrict that figure

Therefore have a smaller plant that puts The energy into ripening the grapes and Giving you better quality fruit but That’s another reason why it’s a widely Spread is that you can also at fairly High yields still make wine that tastes Of Cabernet Sauvignon so just if you Want to make an inexpensive Chilean or Southern French or cheap Bordeaux phone Company so know it’s going to give you Sufficient volume as well so it makes it Economical and even at those higher Yields it will still taste like Cabernet So what does Karen it tastes like black Currants I think you know we definitely Think of this lovely black currant Cassis aromatics and that can be traced To specific compounds found in Cabernet Sauvignon it’s also herbaceous and I Think you see that in different in Different in different ways depending Where your Cabernet Sauvignon is form it Can stretch everything from more than Black honey tomato leaf through bell Pepper to sometimes kind of riper mints Menthol eucalyptus depending on where It’s grown or what stage it’s picked but There’s always this lovely herbaceous Streak to it as well and and because You’ve got this amazingly structured Black great when you obviously restrict The yields do the more I’m making to Give it lots of tannins then it has a Real affinity to oak aging as well and

That’s what your top-quality Cabernets Will be aged in you big oak will Obviously add all those lovely Complexity add lots of complexity to the Flavors those lovely characteristics of Vanilla cedar toast spice etc and but it Will also soften those talents and we Know this can be a really high tannin Grape so it gives those chance There’s tannins a chance to polymerize And soften so they feel more pleasant on The palate even if they’re still mouth Coating even they can still be a high Level but have a lovely so refined Texture From longer ageing and obviously the the Lovely flavors that okay ting will add As well and then age ability so I was Very fortunate recently I haven’t got a Glass at this evening it’s only Tuesday But to try every one of this which is Domaine de Chevalier in 1989 equally When I was just looking at my notes from Chile today we tasted some also some 89 Of Senna while we were there and I’ve Done milk or another Chilean producer Top top Cabernet going back to the you Know 80s 90s so this wine ages Incredibly well and even with that sort Of 30-plus years ageing they can have Freshness they still have some primary Food characters they still have Incredible structure as well as all the Delicious flavors that you get from that

Bottle aging and that’s a leather Tobacco forest floor and cigar box all They’re sort of lovely tertiary Characters that we talk about as well so I’ve just realized I unplugged my laptop Do not like this to to die so I’m just Plugging that back in sorry about that And finally the last characteristic is It expresses terroir and vintage Variations so I’m taking a bit of my Whole for myself here because everyone’s Then going to say how good he tastes the Difference between different areas and I Think as those tastings that we talked About in the beginning show if you know The best of the world’s wine critics can Think that Chilean wine is a Bordeaux or Vice versa then I don’t think I’m going To be able to give you the answers that You need But I think you can generalize and Certain wines do really show their place And and I mean Thai was all encompassing Here so will it will express the Vineyard but also the pick in time the Winemaking everything that the Y maker Does to it as well as the the climber in The vineyard and the soil and the aspect Etc and vintage variation as well so one Of the reasons why I love Bordeaux is You can get different styles for from The same community and on the conditions Of that vintage so it adapts and it Really shows different styles

As well all right let’s move on em and The next one is just to mention perhaps Not quite as stylistic diversity as Chardonnay that I was talking about a Couple of weeks back but again you still Can have diversity and this is why you Know lots of people enjoy Cabernet at Different price points in different ways It you can have it as a rose and okay if We think about cabinet doors ooh is an Appellation for Rose a made from Cabernet grapes cabinet so many Mayan Kemeny font in the lower okay Equally new are lots of places can use It for for raising and it does tend to Give you a little bit more of a Structured raising sometimes they can Have a little bit for no legs a little Bit more color man but those lovely kind Of fruit flavors you can have really Easy drinking Reds as we said you can Make it higher yields in a warm place Where you can easily ripen all your Grapes you can just have higher yields Of Cabernet you can do less sort of Winemaking techniques so you don’t want To extract as much structure you can Just subdue minimal pumping over maybe Even and some micro oxygenation which is Where they pump little bubbles of oxygen Through the wine to kind of soften the Tannins and we create the impact of Barrel aging so you can just have you Know easy drinking Reds relatively

Straightforward to drink equally you can Have some of the most complex age where These stands and everything in between So that’s what I love about cabining you Can get me you know relatively Inexpensive wine they would taste like Cabernet Sauvignon through those sort of Mids Higher price brackets and then your Really really top top wines that Incredibly complex concentrated and aged Worthy and as well you can have Different blends and so we’re obviously Going to look at Bordeaux and claret and Which I just hope above in the chat so Yeah very typically blended with Merlot In Bordeaux but also Cabernet Franc Petit Verdot some of the other grapes in The region equally you can find other Blends Cabernet Shira Is popular in Australia Cabernet Malbec In Argentina okay with sanjivet sea and Italy there’s so many so you can find it As a blending partner and they will Obviously can taste different depending On the other ingredients in your in your Wine in your recipe equally you can get A hundred percent company serving them As well so clovers tea or stones and we Will look at some of those shortly so First off we always have stay in France And we don’t have to but I love Bono and I feel you have to start here with Cameron E because this is its home this

Is you know it’s bad place where it Started and as you can see in our map Abroad I wish southwest France are down In the city of Bordeaux it’s a moderate Maritime climate and that’s so important For Cabernet it needs some warmth so it Won’t ripen really mate well in cool Climates and the impact of the Atlantic And that maritime and the moderating Influence gives it that long growing Season it needs that time to ripen so The fact that it has Maude autumns And oftenly often a nice what we call an Indian summer loving mild warm autumn That just helps that Cabernet ripen and That sometimes can really save the Vintage in some of the years where You’ve had kind of lots afraid and not Great conditions during the growing Season if you get a dry spell in kind of September October some nice warm Temperatures that can just finish off Your ripening and sort of save save your Harvest and you can find Cabernet Sauvignon throughout Bordeaux obviously On the right bank as well there are Little patches and sent a million for Example of gravel and shut a few Jack For example is a San Simeon producer That actually has an unusually high Proportion of Cabernet and but the real Home place for Cabernet Sauvignon and Where it dominates the blend I’m not There for my favorite wines are the left

Bank so all the purple vineyards you can See there on the left Murdoch the communes within it santé Staff react oh my madoka so Julia some Of those really Names for Bordeaux Reds where as I say Cabernet is usually the dominant partner In the blend and and just yeah I love The Stars equally down in Passaic Leonia As well and a northern part of the grads Making wines and that is because of the Soil okay we said it’s late ripening so Cabernet really means this heat Retaining gravel it’s going to drain Well and that’s really important because It rains a lot in Bordeaux so if you’re In a maritime climate and you get a lot Of rain You need that to drain quickly and then The gravel heats up and acts like a Little oven so it’s going to help ripen The Cabernet Sauvignon provide that Extra bit of warmth that it means to Ripen so that’s why it does so well in These areas they were still blend Obviously blending can be a great thing You can one of the things that’s often Not a criticism perhaps but where Cabernet maybe is a little bit lacking Is the body the kind of mouthfeel it has All this structure and acid in tannin But sometimes it can lack a little bit Of flesh so other grape varieties feel That wrong and Merlot is one

Particularly that helps it gives a bit Of body in our Collis it’s the kind of Filling to your Cabernet Sauvignon so That’s a bit typical blending partner Unequally that can add different flavors And you get complexity from your Different blending components equally You could talk about appellation Differences if you really want to get Into the nitty-gritty of Cabernet Styles From Bordeaux it does tend to be more Dominant in places like PUC sighs Julia Margaret really depends it’s a very Large it’s the largest of the four Communes and there’s a lot more Merlot And there’s some some areas of more play Base where Merlot and some producers Will maybe do 5050 others like chateau Margaux that has a lot of gravel and a High proportion so quite varied in star And Sante staff again because it’s more Northerly a little bit cooler has a bit More mellow in some of the blends as a General rule okay obviously there’s lots Of different strata Different producers or with their own Makeup but I’m just going down between Them sand Steph obviously known as the Most tannic and kind of structured pork Has that lovely kind of graphite again With this pretty muscular tannins San Julia is going to be one of my favorites For me it sits between that kind of Structure play out but also some of that

Softness that you get in Margaux and Then Margaux of the subtly ones a little Bit more kind of floor and fragrance but All can make amazing chemist own young Dominant blends and and I think with Bordeaux you know it’s so hard to Generalize because there’s so many Different producers and I think it Really depends there’s so many different Points are where you can do different Things with your Cabernet Sauvignon so And you’re getting different things in The vineyards depending on your canopy Management you know how much sunlight You give the grapes how much shade what Time you pick what yield the age of your Vines older vines are going to give you Less and more concentrated fruits you Know that’s just some of the decisions In vineyard and then you have all your Winemaking choices you know what Temperature will you ferment that and Warmer temperatures are going to extract More color and tan okay what type of oak Obviously in Bordeaux its fringe but What kind of toast how long what size I All these sort of decisions what kind of Extract your medium will you do which is When you mix the skins with the juice Together the color and tannin so even Within below the wives can taste Different from shatter – a tone as a Reflection and all of these decisions But I think is a commonality with

Bordeaux Reds you definitely get that Lovely aromatic fragrant black home in a Kind of classic Bordeaux vintage okay so Sort of normal temperatures not hotter Than usual not miserable And I think you really get that kind of Green bell pepper capsicum character That’s so signature to Cabernet Sauvignon and especially in a moderate Climate rather than a warm climate you Tend to get that more I think it shines Through more with this Really fresh blackcurrant character then Obviously the impact of the French oak So that lovely canxida toast clothes Spice and then your real bottle aged Examples those tertiary characters that For me when I smelled just say hi you Know I’m a Bordeaux things like cigar Tobacco pencil shavings and graphite Some of those sorts of carriages alright And then lastly obviously just to Mention and obviously in Bordeaux you Have some ratings so your top top wines From the medic region so any of those Purple areas highlighted there on the Map if it’s from some of the best Chateau you can see the term crew Classic on the label as of the 1855 Classification they the Chateau these Producers were marked out as the best so It’s like the Premier League I always Say in football you know your your club Is one at the top in the country and you

Are part of that so it’s like an Exclusive club for these Chateau and There’s five ranks within it so I’ve Already mentioned tonight the first Grace like chateau margaux Chateau Lafite Chateau Mouton Rothschild but There’s lots of others as well and then Below that so if you didn’t quite make It into the Premiership if you were like Championship level as a that’s an English Football Reference so apologies For any people that don’t get that but It’s like the second day in Creepers Right so for some of those producers That didn’t quite make it but I still Really making good quality wines it’s And there’s some often really good value To look for so if you like Cabernet Sauvignon baseboard blends and you don’t Want to spend you know cou Class A Prices then look out for crew boys right On the label Yes Oh turn the only applies to the Medic so Cabernet here will always be You know significant part of the blends And you can often get really good value For money as well and then down in the Grass is where they still also have the Crude Class A a little bit different Though just there’s no hierarchy within It you’re either in or you’re out and The interesting thing there is they also Have it for white wines but we’re not Going to spend any time on that way

Just looking at cabernet sauvignon this Evening alright so that is Bordeaux and I’ve got a few pictures here to show you So much’ starts what do I think of the Cou classic a coup boys right Classification being done each year it’s A tough question that I don’t think There’s a perfect system in Borno so the 1855 classification is obviously long Standing it has not changed really since 1855 crude which was just going to and It’s actually just changed as a 20/20 They’re going to review it every five Years so it’s a little bit more Democratic and it does give those Chateaux that perhaps they’ve been doing Well you know chance to get into the Classification and there they are also Going to give it three different teams But as with anything there’s you know no System is perfect and with the ones that Change yearly I think it can can breed Some confusion within consumers they Don’t necessarily know what all these Different labeling terms mean and Equally as you’ve seen in Santa Millian When where there’s a system where people Can get promoted and relegated that can Obviously cause a lot of issues with People that are unhappy if they get Relegated so you know sometimes a static System at least as an investment you Know that’s not going to change there’s Pros and cons to – to both systems right

Let me show you a few of my pictures so This here I think shows but um it’s Really flat okay this is not like some Of those steep slopes that we always Talk about so you can see it’s a really Stretching vineyard this is Chateau Smith out Lafitte’s down in Passaic Leonia and you can see the gravel saw There as well these lovely kind of Whites toning our crops which obviously Retaining the heat and ripening your Cabernet Sauvignon and you can also see How closely the vines are planted Together Because here obviously there is a lot of Rain and and some years this it could be A little bit cloudy it could be a little Bit wet and you plant the vines quite Close together so they compete for Nutrients and so Obviously there’s plenty of water and That will restrict the vigour as well With their it in competition with each Other so you’ve got a lot of what we Call high density planting lots of vines Within a smaller space and and that way You will restrict the yield the vine Will produce less and which will give You better quality fruit and that’s Really important in Bordeaux because you Haven’t got these you know natural Slopes and so the well-drained soil is Crucial and the fact that you’ve got This high density as well and then the

Other picture here very exclusive I was In the cellar of Chateau Mouton Russia And you can see these lovely immaculate Pounds this is your 225 litre per week Which is what they traditionally use in Bordeaux and that looks pretty new you Can tell there’s hardly any staining of The red wine around the bun either so And the top wines can spend up to up to Two years ageing in these barrels really Softening the tannins and taking on all That flavor complexity and then just to Mention ever since a few great vintages There that we saw in there in the sort Of museum cellar chateau Smith earlier Feats I might be one of those vintages Pictured I might not not going to give That away but the other thing for me is Yeah the aged ability of Cabernet just I Love it I love it when it’s mature I Love the fact the tannins soften out but You still have this backbone of Structure you get this amazing and still Dried fruits but still even a little bit Of black fruit and still this kind of Leafy character coming through the Herbaceous notes notes seem to mellow a Little bit and intertwine with all the Secondary oak characters and and well There’s a leather tobacco ashes well I Just found them amazing someone said Whereas 1984 shocking year Terrible vintage so maybe they didn’t Produce very much and

They didn’t or they didn’t think it were They of going in their library Collection so yes unfortunately 1984 was Not a very good year in a lot of regions Throughout the world okay right I’m Gonna move on I got towed off doing Chardonnay for Spending too long in Germany so I’m Moving to the new out so no one kind and This is just just to show you where Abouts we’re talking about obviously There’s lots of different wine produced In California and Cabernet Sauvignon Also you know in Washington State and Some great wines from up there but I’m Going to hone in on the Napa Valley Which you can see just to kind of show You where it is on the second map you Can see it here north north of San Francisco coming off the bay and it Literally is Valley going upwards and Between two mountain regions north of San Francisco so you can just sort of Show you where abouts it’s located Fairly coastal and but obviously in Terms of latitude here 40 degrees 30 Degrees in between warmer most of the Southerly location and Bordeaux and here You are here I am just to prove I did go There I visited something Napa Valley Witness to a program called Napa rocks Where they take aim WMS students out to Napa to to teach them about the region And we had a fabulous week me and a

Couple of my my colleagues that starts With the famous Napa Valley region sign Now she doesn’t look very Mediterranean Climate then little bit cloudy but Obviously normally you get some lovely Sunshine during the day and this is Different to what I okay it’s warm up Okay during the day sort of warm average Temperatures and it’s Mediterranean Climate so that means there’s not much Rainfall during the growing season most Of that will happen in the winter and so It’s very easy to ripen Cabernet Sauvignon here lots of sunshine and Drier conditions perfect for our Thick-skinned you know later ripening Grape that loves the warmth but what is Imported in California and because what Prevents it from getting too hot here And why you know this region Napa is a Real premium region for Cabernet Sauvignon is the funk and we’ve got to Witness this firsthand and it’s really Really crucial and basically obviously The hot air will will rise during the Day and that will suck in cool air off Off the bay from San Pablo Bay and in The south and that creates the Connick Lager mist and that can come in late Afternoon in the evening and it can stay There or it can come in in the morning As well and stay down to it till it Burns off later in the morning and this Provides a real sort of nice cooling

Influence so actually here it’s a bit Difference where we look at other Regions the valley floor home will have A higher diurnal range than the Vineyards on the hillsides because this Fog will be drawn in and will sit on the Lower sites now that’s something Different so usual where we safe the Higher up you going the temperatures Will flexible and so here that’s why you Can still make really top quality wines Women’s flat meaning valley floor sites Because that fog is really important at Preventing the temperatures from getting Too hot and so it gives some respite to The vines it will cool down at night They stop ripening preserves the acidity But obviously it’s going to get lovely And one during the day and with California and Napa cab we think about Ripeness you know we think about this Sort of sometimes a ripe a blackberry Fruits Really lovely polished tannins here so Yeah it’s not really a struggle to ripen Grapes here usually we’ve got all Different types of soil they did a whole Sera now you’ve got so many different Types because you have sort of come up From under the sea you’ve got volcanic And there’s so many I’m not a sore necks Play it’s not the element of why and I Find the most interesting I must admit But you’ve got lots of difference so as

From the bench lands due to the valley Floor which tends to be Alluvial and then you’ve obviously got The poor sort of mounting sights as well So lots of different and some types Throughout Napa Valley if you do turns Have to irrigate here because as I said It’s very dry so they usually will you Will need to irrigate the vines and the Napa Valley and is obviously one a VA And you could just see on a label Napa But also there are sixteen sub a VA s What they call nested a BAS within the Region and they do something that I Think is really clever here is they use What we call conjunctive labeling so if You were in Oakville for example which Is one of the key sub regions you can Put Oakville on your label to Distinguish you from another region like Coombs book but you also have to put Napa Valley and I think that’s so useful For the consumer you know you don’t have To know all sixteen I can’t remember or Sixteen but if it says one of the small Areas it then still tells you Napa so You know whereabouts in the world you Are okay it’s the valley so as I said it Is actually about it’s 30 miles long Five miles wide so not huge you know It’s only a small proportion of Californians wine I put there’s only Four percent so this is premium you know Vineyard region that’s very highly

Protected Israel obviously they had to Put in place and protections so that There wasn’t just an urban sprawl and Development from San Francisco and Equally there’s a lone protection on the Forests and woodland areas as well so We’re literally at kind of almost full Planting capacity of Napa which is great In terms of protecting the region but it Also been but it’s pressure on the great Prices and on the wine prices so they Are these you know premium priced wines Because you can’t develop the area and Anymore and just yeah just to highlight There it’s really a small proportion of California wine as a whole and but There’s lots of different stars and I’ll Show that more On the next map and talked about the Valley and you can sort of see it here With the relief map okay you can see the The lighter color here is flat as you go Following the river and a flat River Valley Inland and then you can see you’ve got The Maya cameras and the vaca mountains On either side so protecting it from the Really cool influence of the Pacific so It is warm enough to ripen Cabernet But equally protecting it from too much Heat from inland as well so you’ve got This perfect little valley to ripen your Cabernet Sauvignon and you can see that In my picture here is round I’m standing

On the eastern side here in Oakville and I’m looking across the valley so you can Really see this the flat valley floor You’ve got the incline I’m going up on Eastern side you’ve got the mountains on The west as well and it literally will Run through there for 430 miles and and This does give you diversity and one of The favorite tastings of my trip to Napa When the first day we sat down in Behringer and they just showed us some Different cabinets from some of their Different vineyards and they’re Incredibly different and then showed us How you know the blends that they make With those and we did some others from Different producers from all over all of The different AV aids and it was amazing How incredibly different The wines tasted and I think you know a Lot of people think on all napa cabbage Beach and bike and that can be the sort Of general stone and it’s obviously Right for them bordeaux if you’ve got Such variation and if you look here on This map and this map doesn’t feature All 16 there’s a few more aviaries Kuma’s field down here south of stag Sleep and one could and i forgotten the Name of it Something horse there’s there’s a few More and but they’ve really going to Differ so obviously the vineyards on the Flat valley floor is where it’s gonna be

The sort of warmest wild horse valley Thank your new ID forget it I always Think of dancing horses so the flat Valley floor is is very warm get a lot Of fog in the evening which is great You’re gonna get these lovely full-body Plush ripe stars usually from here Especially some Rutherford’s tocqueville In the center of the valley and this was The region’s planted in the beginning This in first areas developed in Napa Equally if you got to Calistoga this is Farthest away from the base of some of The hottest areas here I’m giving you That ripeness but equally if you go up Into the mountains so you’ve got Spring Mountain district here there’s one Diamond Mountain Israel mount reader This elevation is really going to bring Down your temperatures you actually get Less swing in temperatures from the Valley floor but you’ve got this Elevation so you tend to get a little Bit more tannin structure and acidity Maybe even a bit more kind of floral Character in your Cabernet Sauvignon Here a little bit yeah sort of a more Strange style sometimes equally you can Go up the mountains on the other side as Well But then the other key thing is your Exposure okay so remember the sun’s Going to be coming up from the east and Then going over and setting in the West

So the vineyards here in mount vida and Said Hellena get the kind of lovely Gentle morning sun and then the sun’s Gonna go down behind the Maya commerce Range and you’re going to have some some Shade so they tend to again have less Sunshine a little bit less sort of heat And can be fresher styles whereas those Vineyards that are perhaps sitting here On the eastern side therefore getting That hot afternoon Sun there again are Going to really get some flavor ripeness And that’s exactly where I was standing I’ve got another couple of pictures to Show you I’m in tiara vineyards here is only a Small producer and in Oakville and you Can see I’m looking down the slope which Is westward facing so across the Mountains at the end of that picture There is would go out towards the Pacific and they really would get a lot Of sunshine and warmth in the afternoon On those slopes and you can see the Gradient here as well and you can see Sort of slightly clays so I was here Sort of red And then going down to the valley floor So even within Napa is such diversity And there’s so many different styles Being made I think you just have to Experiment and try different producers As well okay I shall look at the Questions at the end and I counted the

Time And lastly then as I said I have to look At Chile I’m sorry if I haven’t I was Tempted to look at qu Noir I’ve also Been there I have him in South Africa by Some amazing Cabernets from there so Many places Argentina other parts of the States you know Australia Margaret we Were there so there’s so many Tuscany I was really wanted to go there but Having just been to Chile I had to give It recognition and also because I think Sometimes people don’t give Chile all The credit it deserves there are some Top top quality wines coming from this Country yes there’s some cheap and Cheerful wines as well but that’s just Like everywhere you can find inexpensive Bordeaux or French paid-up there’s very Basic Australian wines you know so and The top top wine say I think have to Give credit and I was so impressed when I visited with with some of the wines Obviously there are other great Varieties but Cabernet Sauvignon here is Really dominant as well it’s you know It’s king in Chile vineyards and so I Had to had to mention it again also warm Mediterranean climates are not that Different to California and Napa where We’ve just been looking at and I cook Country that’s for looks were free so And basically flux or as a vine pests That really devastated European

Vineyards but he never got to Chile Because Chile is protected you’ve got The Pacific Ocean on one side you’ve got The Andes on the other you’ve got desert In the north and you know at Arctic in The south so it’s never got there so There are some incredibly old vineyards And you’ve also makes it very easily Easy to be organic or sustainable you’ve Got you know really dry conditions lot Of sunshine it really is perfect Conditions for growing grapes so it’s Very easy to grow grapes here the Flipside of that unfortunately is Drought and the last few years there Have been some you know really dry years They have been drought the last couple Of years in Chile and you could see it In the vineyard regions I was I was Quite struck compared to Bordeaux which Is very lush and green because it rains All the time like the UK that you know Did look quite dusting quite dry in a Lot of places So hopefully that doesn’t become too Much of an ongoing issue here but Obviously climate change and extremes it Is something to consider and basically All of Chile is like a valley so that’s Why all the vineyard regions here are Named after valleys the Central Valley Made up of numerous other valleys and It’s literally because you’ve got this Tiny long thin country and you do have

Some small coastal ranges of mountains And then obviously you’ve got the huge Andes on the other side and a lot of the Vineyards sit between them so you Imagine this stretch of coloured Vineyards here as the valley and then You have those more on the coastal side That are going to be cooler those in the Middle they on treated cordially laughs Excuse my turbo Spanish where it’s Warmer generally and tends to be a bit Flatter and then those going up into the Foothills of their handles but obviously Within that one big Sun Valley you’ve Also got little cross valleys so there’s So many different undulations different Aspects and terrains and just incredible Vineyards and Cabernet can show itself Differently between vineyards two Vineyards within the same sub region and You can plant different grape varieties And blend that in and you know really Does depend I don’t have figures for all The regions unfortunately that was what Wines which really gave me at a time but You can see it’s not so widely spread in A con category even though it’s still The most dominant grape variety there Especially in those more some central Regions Further away from the coast but in in my Pro look nearly 7,000 hectare Cabernet Sauvignon and that is where a Lot of the traditional plantings were

Because it’s around Santiago the capital And there’s some incredible older vines Of Cabernet Sauvignon they’re doing Amazing making amazing wines and that’s Where and Don Milko is based that’s Concha Torres top sort of icon wine and They also make our Viva and my PO is Also home so I just need to move the Chat so I can see what I write of Sena And Don Maximiliano sorry been a tad Chadwick don’t max me on it is actually A little bit south and no sorry I’ve got It wrong I keep confusing myself now Don’t Maximiliano he’s a bit up in a con Cowboy as his Senate and VIN viene de Chadwick is in my poem so I was going Down and then you have are they Incredible wineries as well as they Places like Vic which are doing a more Recent but making amazing a Cabernet Into blends in a while San Pedro Cabo Don’t horn us isn’t one of their top Cabernet wines as well Also from Kashyap well and then monsters Who are beasts Montes are based in Colchagua Valley and alpha M is one of Their top wines and you know I haven’t Highlighted particular producers in Bordeaux and Napa I think there’s so Many and there’s lots of big names I’m Sure you know some but I just really Wanted to point out some of the ones That I taste in Chile when I was there And just thought where incredible and

Worthy and you know on the same stage as You know our top photo and Napa lines That that probably have you know more Claim on more people talking about them And and yeah you just have this Brilliant climate the very sort of Focused on the environment they’re Really sort of lots of expertise going Into it and just incredible wines and Just to point out that they were just as Age where they as I said I was fortunate To do some great tastings of 1980s Onwards Cabernet Sauvignon based wines From Chile and just just remarkable I Think is a signature Chili cab often hasn’t you know really Quite pungent herbaceous nough sometimes It’s a green bell pepper sometimes Almost like a slight kind of green chili Green olive note to it as well which is Very fragrance but these wines as he’s Saying you know they they were they run A par with your top age worthy wines From elsewhere and and again often Blended you can see either sort of Things in the blend or just 100% Carolyn As well though I think I didn’t quite Mention in Napa 100% companies is more Typical perhaps in some of your Napa Wines because you’ve got that warmth and Brightness and you can get a hundred Sink cabinets it’s surprised there but In all of these places you do get some Blends as well and I think sometimes

That just adds another level another Layer which I really really enjoy okay I Think I almost spoke for now and Cabernet so no I think I’ve covered Everything I wanted to say this is the Vineyard so this is you know a serious This is there Dom Maximiliano winery in A con cargo in the north and I just Wanted to showcase it because it’s Beautiful you can see they’re really Modern winery here and I’m standing Where the traditional winery is but you Can also see how green it is where They’ve irrigated and then how dry it is On the other slopes that I obviously Have not been or perhaps you know in the Rain shadow so you could really see the Difference when you’re touring around From the dry owners to where obviously Irrigation is vital and yeah I thank you I think that’s a stunning photo and it Just takes me back to standing there Having just tried some sin and some Vanilla Chadwick and amazing wines and Glorious sunshine it was stunning So I shall just move on and to the final Slide it just kind of sums up for me you Know why I think how many sometimes Great you still have recognizable Characteristics from lots of different Places even in sort of everyday wines it Does show a sense of place because you Really structured around something you Can be sure and taste

The best examples are so complex and you Know the long-term age ability that’s They’re still alive and kicking 30 40 50 Years on for the best best best examples But there’s something for everyone at Different price point different styles Different quality levels young to really Mature so that’s why I wanted to talk About it and just as some up obviously Please pop any questions in the chats And shortly and I will go through any And Lauren can let me know any of I’ve Missed I know it’s been very chatty While I’ve been talking and just to Highlight a few of the other tastings We’ve got coming up so whiskey tomorrow The quiz you’ve got sharing with Lauren Next week and then myself and Patrick We’re gonna use a cheese writer doing Some cheese and wine and just to Highlight as well and as I said the Video so if you missed this or you Missed the beginning or you missed the End go to Dover ste school comm and Student information and you can see all The recordings of the webinar there We’ll go live give us a chance I’ll get It up ASAP thank you to all those that Attended I shall take any questions if You have any now I’m happy to answer Those for you but thanks for joining Hope you enjoyed a good glass of Cabernet Sauvignon I didn’t I did show You this but just say yes this was one I

Tasted incredible and still so perfume Still this lovely sort of blackcurrant Leaf bell pepper notes but incredibly Harmonious and you know 30 odd years of Age so I’m hoping I’m going to age you Know quite like a sore top cabinet okay